Q: A horizontal angle measured clockwise from a north base line describes?

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an azimuth

An azimuth.

It could describe the bearing, if expressed as a three digit number.

Yes. Angles may be measured from the direction of the positive horizontal axis and, clockwise is negative, anticlockwise is positive.

An angle is positive when it is measured in a counter-clockwise direction. It is negative when it is measured in a clock-wise direction.

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an azimuth

An azimuth.

It could describe the bearing, if expressed as a three digit number.

An Azimuth

Yes. Angles may be measured from the direction of the positive horizontal axis and, clockwise is negative, anticlockwise is positive.

A true bearing is a type of bearing that indicates the direction of one point relative to another point on the Earth's surface, measured using true north as a reference point. It is expressed as an angle, measured in degrees, between a fixed reference direction (such as true north) and the direction of the point being observed. True bearings are important for navigation, surveying, and other applications that require accurate direction-finding. They differ from magnetic bearings, which are measured relative to the Earth's magnetic field, and are subject to variation depending on the location and time. True bearings are more reliable and consistent, as they are based on the Earth's axis of rotation and do not change over time or location.

An angle is positive when it is measured in a counter-clockwise direction. It is negative when it is measured in a clock-wise direction.

azimuth

An angle is a measure of turn. the amount of turn is the magnitude, measured in degrees, and direction of turn can be clockwise or anti-clockwise. A positive angle turns in an anti-clockwise direction while a negative angle turns in a clockwise direction.

If I understand the question correctly, the answer is that it is simply a case of convention. For bearings, for example, the reference line is North and angles are measured clockwise. In 2-D polar coordinates, the reference line is the horizontal (going East) and angles are measured in the anti-clockwise direction.

In structural geology, pitch is the inclination of a planar feature (such as a bedding plane or fault) measured perpendicular to its strike direction. It describes the steepness of the feature as it dips into the Earth's subsurface. Pitch is often represented as an angle measured from the horizontal plane.

Slope is the angle compared with the horizontal, where the horizontal is 90° to the vertical, which can be measured with a plumb line. So, put a weight on a string, measure the angle of the string to the angle you are measuring, subtract 90° and that will give you the slope.