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Q: For the bits stream 01001110 sketch the waveforms foreach ofthe codes oftable.Assume thatthe signal level for the preceding bit for NRZI was high The most recent preceding 1bit AMI has -ve Voltage.?

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Power factor ranges from zero to a maximum of 1. At 1 the current and voltage waveforms are in phase and operate at maximum efficiency.

Peak Inverse Voltage, the maximum reverse bias (inverse) voltage that can be applied to the diode without damaging or destroying it. The work "peak" is used to remind you that when using the diode to rectify AC (or arbitrary waveforms) you must use the peak voltage, not the RMS voltage.

effective values = Vm/SQR(2) max voltage / the square root of (2) same for current This doesn't apply for all periodic functions, only sinusoidal.

First visualize a sine wave. It undulates between positive and negative voltage in a form that looks like the wave that ripples out when you drop something onto still water. If you took a picture across a slice through multiple ripples you would see a positive hump and then its negative image. So the wave is gradually rising to a peak and then falling to a valley. If you superimposed two such waves upon each other and they matched perfectly where they crossed zero and where they peaked positively then the waveforms would have the same frequency and would be in phase. If you took these in phase waveforms and then slid one over the other so that the positive and negative peaks occurred at the same time the waveforms would be 180 degrees out of phase. In a three phase system the peaks of three waveforms are each one third cycle from the other or 120 degrees out of phase with each other. In a three phase system each waveform is on separate wires so that you can either run a device such as a motor that runs on 3-phase power or you can add different phases together to get different voltage outputs or use each voltage separately as single phase services.

AC voltage, like the voltage in your house, is typically referred to as 120vAC. This means the voltage swings 120V positive and 120V negative 60 times per second (60 Hz) 360 degrees total (sine wave). Current and voltage go hand-n-hand so the current alternates with the voltage. the RMS value is what we experience at the output (160vAC is actually sent to the circuits)

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waveforms depend on it

waveforms depend on it

Power Factor measures how much the current and voltage waveforms are out of phase. You get most efficient power transfer when the sine waves for voltage and current exactly match. When you multiply peak voltage and current you get the largest power. Depending on the phase relationships, you can bring the voltage and current waveforms into phase when you retard one or advance one against the other. Power Factor ranges from zero when the waveforms are 180 degrees out of phase to one when they are exactly in phase.

If current and voltage of an AC are in phase, then the "power factor" is 100%, and the load is a pure resistance, with no inductive or capacitive reactance (at least at the operating frequency of the AC).

For a sinusoidal waveorm, RMS (effective, heating) value = 2/pi x (peak voltage). It's not 2/pi for waveforms with other shapes. 2/pi = roughly 63.7%

This figure only applies to sinusoidal waveforms. It is derived, as the name 'rms' implies, by finding the square-root of average value of square of the instantaneous currents over a complete cycle.

With an oscilloscope. Measure the vertical height of the wave on the screen . Multiply that by the volts per division setting. That will give you its' voltage.

Power factor ranges from zero to a maximum of 1. At 1 the current and voltage waveforms are in phase and operate at maximum efficiency.

Peak Inverse Voltage, the maximum reverse bias (inverse) voltage that can be applied to the diode without damaging or destroying it. The work "peak" is used to remind you that when using the diode to rectify AC (or arbitrary waveforms) you must use the peak voltage, not the RMS voltage.

A pure resistive load always has a power factor of one. This is because the current and voltage waveforms are in phase in an AC circuit.

EFFECTIVE HOW ABOUT AVERAGE .639 of peak.AnswerThe 'effective' value of an a.c. voltage (or current) is the same as its 'root-mean-square' (r.m.s.) voltage which, for a sinusoidal waveform, is 0.707 Umax.The 'average' value of an a.c. voltage (or current) is zero over a complete cycle, or 0.639 Umax, over half a cycle (usually applied to rectified waveforms).

Because the voltage induced is proportional to the rate of change of current, and the maximum rate of change of current occurs at the point where the current waveform is 'steepest' -i.e. as it passes through zero. So, as the current passes through zero, the corresponding value of induced voltage is maximum, which means the voltage and current waveforms are displaced by a quarter of the wavelength, or 90 degrees.