75% of US has Residential Phone Service.
Verizon offers great Residential Phone Service in Boston
It will depend on your area but you can check with Verizon to see if they offer residential service in your area.
1950. Residential deliveries reduced to one a day.
No, that is an optional service.
Currently, only about a quarter of U.S. households do not have residential phone service. Many other people maintain residential phone service but rarely use it, though this number is not measured.
With a transformer.
Not in the US of A.
What's the reading at the service panel? What do regular 115V outlets read at? What kind of meter are you using? Chances are you have 480/277V 3 phase power to this building. Whoever wired the outlet used a 277V feed, possibly because 240V was not avaliable. You should call an electrician, repair of this problem may involve instalation of a transformer.