One wire would have to be changed to a neutral wire. It would be put on the neutral bar in the electrical panel.
If you mean can you split off the power from an outlet to another outlet or device the answer is yes. Just make sure not to overload the circuit. Usually outlets have two connection points for Hot (Copper colored screw) - black wire and Neutral (Silver colored screw) - White wire. Just take off power at the unused screws if they exist or use wire nuts to branch off other wire pair and a pigtail to reconnect to the outlet if two pairs of wire already on outlet
Yes you can, BUT IT IS DANGEROUS!!! You can use one side of the breaker to wire an outlet but if the outlet or the appliance you plug into the outlet shorts out, the breaker may not trip. Only half of the breaker will try to trip and the other half will not know to do the same therefore you could over heat the circuits and cause a fire. NOT A GOOD IDEA. That is a stupid answer, you cannot wire one side of a breaker. IT WILL NOT TRIP !!!! SO IT COULD CAUSE SOMEONE TO BE ELECTROCUTED.
No, that is not unsafe.
a shorted out outlet can cause a backfeed on the white wire, an open circuit on the white wire with and electrical appliance plugged in to an outlet can cause the same type of backfeed
This can not be done with the wire that you have. If you would like a detailed answer as to why not, start a discussion.
Connect the incoming power wire and the outgoing power wire going to the light switch to the line side of the GFCI outlet. This will protect the outlet and will not turn off power to the light if the GFCI trips.
# 6 wire
The input white wire is connected directly to neutral side of the outlet. The input black wire is connected directly to one of the switch posts. Find a short piece of black wire and connect it from the OTHER side of the switch post to the "hot" side of the outlet. Connect the input ground wire to both the outlet and the switch.
Bring the hot power wire into the wall switch box and run another wire out to the outlet. Tie all the whites together in the switch box under a wire nut and shove this back into the box. Tie the black incoming wire and the black wire going to the outlet together and jump a wire off this to one of the screws on the light switch. Connect the black wire going to the light to the other screw on the light switch. Connect the white/black wire to the outlet.