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The 8 isomers of pentose are in the carbohydrate family and are characterized as simple sugars, or monosaccharide's. The asymmetric chiral centers generally refer to the presence of interaction with polarized light.

Q: What are the names of 8 isomers of pentose of 3 unsymmetric chiral centers?

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Chiral chromosomes.

Aldoheptoses have seven carbon atoms and one chiral center, so they can have a maximum of 2^1 = 2 enantiomers.

Here is some information about the 13 Archimedean solids:Tetrahedron-related:1) The truncated tetrahedron has 12 vertices, 18 edges, & 8 faces (4 triangles & 4 hexagons).Cube-related:2) The truncated cube has 24 vertices, 36 edges, & 14 faces (8 triangles & 6 octagons). Also known as a truncated hexahedron.3) The truncated octahedron has 24 vertices, 36 edges, & 14 faces (6 squares & 8 hexagons).4) The cuboctahedron has 12 verticies, 24 edges, & 14 faces (8 triangles & 6 squares).5) The small rhombicuboctahedron has 24 vertices, 48 edges, & 26 faces (8 triangles & 18 squares). Also known simply as a rhombicuboctahedron.6) The great rhombicuboctahedron has 48 vertices, 72 edges, & 26 faces (12 squares, 8 hexagons, & 6 octagons). Also known as a truncated cuboctahedron.7) The snub cube has 24 vertices, 60 edges, & 38 faces (32 triangles & 6 squares). Also known variously as a snub hexahedron, snub octahedron, or snub cuboctahedron. This shape, along with the snub dodecahedron, has 2 chiral forms.Icosahedron-related:8) The truncated icosahedron has 60 vertices, 90 edges, & 32 faces (12 pentagons & 20 hexagons). Also known as a buckyball or a football/soccer ball.9) The truncated dodecahedron has 60 vertices, 90 edges, & 32 faces (20 triangles & 12 decagons).10) The icosidodecahedron has 30 vertices, 60 edges, & 32 faces (20 triangles & 12 pentagons).11) The small rhombicosidodecahedron has 60 vertices, 120 edges, & 62 faces (20 triangles, 30 squares, & 12 pentagons). Also known simply as a rhombicosidodecahedron.12) The great rhombicosidodecahedron has 120 vertices, 180 edges, & 62 faces (30 squares, 20 hexagons, & 12 decagons). Also known as a truncated icosidodecahedron.13) The snub dodecahedron has 60 vertices, 150 edges, & 92 faces (80 triangles & 12 pentagons). Also known as a snub icosahedron or a snub icosidodecahedron. This shape, along with the snub cube, has 2 chiral forms.

Generally speaking, an object with rotational symmetry is an object that looks the same after a certain amount of rotation. An object may have more than one rotational symmetry; for instance, if reflections or turning it over are not counted, the triskelion appearing on the Isle of Man's flag (see opposite) has three rotational symmetries (or "a threefold rotational symmetry"). More examples may be seen below. The degree of rotational symmetry is how many degrees the shape has to be turned to look the same on a different side or vertex. It can not be the same side or vertex.Contents[hide] 1 Formal treatment 1.1 n-fold rotational symmetry1.2 Examples1.3 Multiple symmetry axes through the same point1.4 Rotational symmetry with respect to any angle1.5 Rotational symmetry with translational symmetry2 See also3 References4 External linksFormal treatmentFormally, rotational symmetry is symmetry with respect to some or all rotations in m-dimensional Euclidean space. Rotations are direct isometries, i.e., isometries preserving orientation. Therefore a symmetry group of rotational symmetry is a subgroup of E+(m) (see Euclidean group). Symmetry with respect to all rotations about all points implies translational symmetry with respect to all translations, so space is homogeneous, and the symmetry group is the whole E(m). With the modified notion of symmetry for vector fields the symmetry group can also be E+(m).For symmetry with respect to rotations about a point we can take that point as origin. These rotations form the special orthogonal group SO(m), the group of m×m orthogonal matrices with determinant 1. For m=3 this is the rotation group SO(3).In another meaning of the word, the rotation group of an object is the symmetry group within E+(n), the group of direct isometries; in other words, the intersection of the full symmetry group and the group of direct isometries. For chiral objects it is the same as the full symmetry group.Laws of physics are SO(3)-invariant if they do not distinguish different directions in space. Because of Noether's theorem, rotational symmetry of a physical system is equivalent to the angular momentum conservation law. See also Rotational invariance.n-fold rotational symmetryRotational symmetry of order n, also called n-fold rotational symmetry, or discrete rotational symmetry of the nth order, with respect to a particular point (in 2D) or axis (in 3D) means that rotation by an angle of 360°/n (180°, 120°, 90°, 72°, 60°, 51 3/7 °, etc.) does not change the object. Note that "1-fold" symmetry is no symmetry, and "2-fold" is the simplest symmetry, so it does not mean "more than basic". The notation for n-fold symmetry is Cn or simply "n". The actual symmetry group is specified by the point or axis of symmetry, together with the n. For each point or axis of symmetry the abstract group type is cyclic group Zn of order n. Although for the latter also the notation Cn is used, the geometric and abstract Cn should be distinguished: there are other symmetry groups of the same abstract group type which are geometrically different, see cyclic symmetry groups in 3D.The fundamental domain is a sector of 360°/n.Examples without additional reflection symmetry:n = 2, 180°: the dyad[disambiguation needed ], quadrilaterals with this symmetry are the parallelograms; other examples: letters Z, N, S; apart from the colors: yin and yangn = 3, 120°: triad[disambiguation needed ], triskelion, Borromean rings; sometimes the term trilateral symmetry is used;n = 4, 90°: tetrad[disambiguation needed ], swastikan = 6, 60°: hexad, raelian symbol, new versionn = 8, 45°: octad, Octagonal muqarnas, computer-generated (CG), ceilingCn is the rotation group of a regular n-sided polygon in 2D and of a regular n-sided pyramid in 3D.If there is e.g. rotational symmetry with respect to an angle of 100°, then also with respect to one of 20°, the greatest common divisor of 100° and 360°.A typical 3D object with rotational symmetry (possibly also with perpendicular axes) but no mirror symmetry is a propeller.ExamplesC2 (more examples) Double Pendulum fractalThe starting position in shogiC3 (more examples) Roundabout traffic signSnoldelev Stone's interlocked drinking horns designC4 (more examples) Decorative Hindu form of the swastikaMultiple symmetry axes through the same pointFor discrete symmetry with multiple symmetry axes through the same point, there are the following possibilities: In addition to an n-fold axis, n perpendicular 2-fold axes: the dihedral groups Dn of order 2n(n≥2). This is the rotation group of a regular prism, or regular bipyramid. Although the same notation is used, the geometric and abstract Dn should be distinguished: there are other symmetry groups of the same abstract group type which are geometrically different, see dihedral symmetry groups in 3D.4×3-fold and 3×2-fold axes: the rotation group T of order 12 of a regular tetrahedron. The group is isomorphic to alternating group A4.3×4-fold, 4×3-fold, and 6×2-fold axes: the rotation group O of order 24 of a cube and a regular octahedron. The group is isomorphic to symmetric group S4.6×5-fold, 10×3-fold, and 15×2-fold axes: the rotation group I of order 60 of a dodecahedron and an icosahedron. The group is isomorphic to alternating group A5. The group contains 10 versions of D3 and 6 versions of D5(rotational symmetries like prisms and antiprisms).In the case of the Platonic solids, the 2-fold axes are through the midpoints of opposite edges, the number of them is half the number of edges. The other axes are through opposite vertices and through centers of opposite faces, except in the case of the tetrahedron, where the 3-fold axes are each through one vertex and the center of one face.Rotational symmetry with respect to any angleRotational symmetry with respect to any angle is, in two dimensions, circular symmetry. The fundamental domain is a half-line. In three dimensions we can distinguish cylindrical symmetry and spherical symmetry (no change when rotating about one axis, or for any rotation). That is, no dependence on the angle using cylindrical coordinates and no dependence on either angle using spherical coordinates. The fundamental domain is a half-plane through the axis, and a radial half-line, respectively. Axisymmetric or axisymmetrical are adjectives which refer to an object having cylindrical symmetry, or axisymmetry. An example of approximate spherical symmetry is the Earth (with respect to density and other physical and chemical properties).In 4D, continuous or discrete rotational symmetry about a plane corresponds to corresponding 2D rotational symmetry in every perpendicular plane, about the point of intersection. An object can also have rotational symmetry about two perpendicular planes, e.g. if it is the Cartesian product of two rotationally symmetry 2D figures, as in the case of e.g. the duocylinder and various regular duoprisms.Rotational symmetry with translational symmetryArrangement within a primitive cell of 2- and 4-fold rotocenters. A fundamental domain is indicated in yellow. 2-fold rotational symmetry together with single translational symmetry is one of the Frieze groups. There are two rotocenters per primitive cell.Together with double translational symmetry the rotation groups are the following wallpaper groups, with axes per primitive cell:p2 (2222): 4×2-fold; rotation group of a parallelogrammic, rectangular, and rhombic lattice.p3 (333): 3×3-fold; not the rotation group of any lattice (every lattice is upside-down the same, but that does not apply for this symmetry); it is e.g. the rotation group of the regular triangular tiling with the equilateral triangles alternatingly colored.p4 (442): 2×4-fold, 2×2-fold; rotation group of a square lattice.p6 (632): 1×6-fold, 2×3-fold, 3×2-fold; rotation group of a hexagonal lattice.2-fold rotocenters (including possible 4-fold and 6-fold), if present at all, form the translate of a lattice equal to the translational lattice, scaled by a factor 1/2. In the case translational symmetry in one dimension, a similar property applies, though the term "lattice" does not apply.3-fold rotocenters (including possible 6-fold), if present at all, form a regular hexagonal lattice equal to the translational lattice, rotated by 30° (or equivalently 90°), and scaled by a factorArrangement within a primitive cell of 2-, 3-, and 6-fold rotocenters, alone or in combination (consider the 6-fold symbol as a combination of a 2- and a 3-fold symbol); in the case of 2-fold symmetry only, the shape of the parallelogram can be different. For the case p6, a fundamental domain is indicated in yellow. 4-fold rotocenters, if present at all, form a regular square lattice equal to the translational lattice, rotated by 45°, and scaled by a factor6-fold rotocenters, if present at all, form a regular hexagonal lattice which is the translate of the translational lattice.Scaling of a lattice divides the number of points per unit area by the square of the scale factor. Therefore the number of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-fold rotocenters per primitive cell is 4, 3, 2, and 1, respectively, again including 4-fold as a special case of 2-fold, etc.3-fold rotational symmetry at one point and 2-fold at another one (or ditto in 3D with respect to parallel axes) implies rotation group p6, i.e. double translational symmetry and 6-fold rotational symmetry at some point (or, in 3D, parallel axis). The translation distance for the symmetry generated by one such pair of rotocenters is 2√3 times their distance.Hexakis triangular tiling, an example of p6 (with colors) and p6m (without); the lines are reflection axes if colors are ignored, and a special kind of symmetry axis if colors are not ignored: reflection reverts the colors. Rectangular line grids in three orientations can be distinguished.See alsoAmbigramAxial symmetryCrystallographic restriction theoremFrieze groupLorentz symmetryPoint groups in three dimensionsRecycling symbolReflection symmetryRotational invarianceScrew axisSpace groupSymmetry groupSymmetry combinationsThree haresTranslational symmetryWallpaper groupReferencesWeyl, Hermann (1982) [1952]. Symmetry. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02374-3.External linksMedia related to Rotational symmetry by order at Wikimedia CommonsRotational Symmetry Examples from Math Is FunView page ratings Rate this pageRate this pagePage ratingsWhat's this?Current average ratings.TrustworthyObjectiveCompleteMissing most informationWell-writtenI am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional)I have a relevant college/university degreeIt is part of my professionIt is a deep personal passionThe source of my knowledge is not listed hereI would like to help improve Wikipedia, send me an e-mail (optional)We will send you a confirmation e-mail. We will not share your e-mail address with outside parties as per our feedback privacy statement.Submit ratingsSaved successfullyYour ratings have not been submitted yetYour ratings have expiredPlease reevaluate this page and submit new ratings.An error has occured. Please try again later.Thanks! 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SyllabusSecond Year Semester - I209341: Chemistry ITeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Theory: 4 hr/week Paper: 100 MarksPractical: 4 hr/week Practical: 50 Marks____________________________________________________________________________________UNIT 1 Structural Effect and Reactivity 8LectBenzene and aromaticity, concept of aromaticity (4n+2), condition's necessary for demoralization, breaking and formation of bonds (Reaction intermediate).Factors affecting electron availability -Inductive effect, Resonance effect (resonance structures of naphthalene , anthracene , aniline , phenoxide ion, benzaldehyde, nitrobenzene, etc..), hyperconjugation, steric effect, tautomerism. Effects of resonance, inductive effect, steric effect on pKa, and pKb value of simple acid and bases. Types of reactions, types of reagents.UNIT2 Reaction Mechanism 8 LectMechanism of reaction involving carbonium ion intermediates:1. Nucleophilic substitution -Hydrolysis of alkyl halide (SN 1 Mechanism).Also discuss SN 2 mechanism and factors affecting SN reactions.2. Electrophilic substitution in benzene and mono-substituted benzene nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft alkylation and acylation.3. Electrophilic addition to C=C, polar addition of hydrogen halides and water, alkylation, dimerisation.4. Elimination's - E1 reaction s in acid catalyzed dehydration of alcohols, base catalyzed dehydro-halogenation of alkyl halides, comparison of elimination with substitution. Also cover E2 mechanism.5. Rearrangement-Beckman rearrangement.Mechanism of reactions involving carbanion intermediates:1. Addition of carbon nucleophilic to C=O- Grignard reaction for preparation of primary, secondary , and tertiary alcohol's and carboxylic acids.2. Nucleophilic substitution by carbon nucleophile- Wurtz reaction.3. Carbanion involves in condensation- Aldol condensation and Claisen ester condensation.4. Rearrangement involving carbanion-Favorskii rearrangement.Reaction involving free radical intermediates:1. Addition of hydrogen halides to C=C in presence of peroxides2. Substitution reaction- Halogenation of methane3. Dimerization- Kolbe synthesis.UNIT 3 8 LectA) StereochemistryBasic concepts of Stereochemistry, conformational isomerism of ethane, propane, butane, cyclohexane, monosubstituted cyclohexane. Optical isomerism with one , two chiral centres (AA and AB types), erythro, threo , meso distereoisomers. Geometrical isomerism (compounds containing one double bond).Heterocyclic compoundsStructure, preparations and reactions, five membered rings- Furan, Pyrolle thiophene, Six membered ring- Pyridine, Fused rings-Indole, Quinoline.UNIT 4 Solid and Liquid State 8 LectSolid state-Introduction, characteristics of solids melting point, sublimation, atomic and molar heat of solids, X-ray crystallography-Bragg's equation, measurement of diffraction of angle.Liquid state- introduction, intermolecular forces, structure of liquids, general properties of liquids. Evaporation, vapor pressure, measurement of vapor pressure, Trouton's rule, boiling point, heat of vaporization, freezing point, surface tension and it's measurement. Parachor, viscosity and it's measurement. Factors affecting viscosity, molecular viscosity and optical activity. Numericals on all above( solids and liquids both).UNIT 5 Gaseous state 8 LectGaseous state I- Behavior of ideal gases, kinetic molecular theory of gases. The kinetic gas equation. Derivation of gas laws from gas equation, kinetic energy and temperature. Types of molecular velocities and their calculations mean free path and collision frequency, collision diameter, and degrees of freedom. Law of equipartition of energies, specific heat and molar heats of gases.Gaseous state II- behavior of real gases- ideal and real gases, deviation from ideal behavior, Vander Wall's equation of state and it's limitations, intermolecular forces. The critical phenomenon, experimental determination of critical constants of a gas, critical phenomenon and Andrews experiments, Vander Wall's equation and critical state, calculation of critical constants.UNIT 6 Solution: 8 LectSolution-definition, why substances dissolve, temperature and solubility, solution of gas in gas, gases in liquid, Henry law, the ideal solution, Raoult'1s law of ideal solution, solutions of liquids in liquids, theory f dilute solution. Colligative properties, osmosis, osmotic pressure, measurement of osmotic pressure.Colligative properties of dilute solution- lowering of vapor pressure, elevation of boiling point and thermodynamic derivation, depression in freezing point and thermodynamic derivation. Abnormal behavior of solutions of electrolytes.Numericals on all above.List of Practical:Nine experiments from group I and eight experiments from group IIGroup IAny two experiments from experiment no 1,2,31.Volumetric estimation of amide from the given solution of amide.2. Volumetric estimation of acetone from the given solution of acetone.3.Volumetric estimation of ester from the given ester solution of ester.4.Purification of organic compound by recrystalization and sublimation and to find their physical constants ( any four compounds).Organic preparations with M.P. after crystallization and TLC (any three experiments from experiment no. ,6,7,8).4. Preparation of benzoic acid from benzamide.5. Preparation of osazone derivatives of glucose.6. Preparation of aspirin from salicylic acid.7. Preparation of m-nitroaniline from m-dinitrobenzene.Group II1. To determine the percentage composition of a given mixture of two liquids by stalagmometer.2. To determine relative viscosities of liquids A and b by Ostwald's viscometer. Ton find percentage composition of mixture C of A and B by using graphical method using viscosity data3. To determine radius of macromolecule by Ostwald's viscometer.4. To determine molecular weight of non volatile solute by depression in freezing point method5. To determine molecular weight of solid y elevation in boiling point method.6. To determine distribution coefficient of iodine between water and carbon tetrachloride and hence to determine the molecular condition of iodine.7. To determine molecular weight of given immiscible liquid by steam distillation method.8. To determine amount of hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid from the given mixture by using pH meter.9. To determine heat of solution of potassium nitrate or ammonium chloride by studying their solubility in water.10. To study acid hydrolysis of methyl acetate and to show that it is first order reaction.Reference Books:1. Jerry March; Advanced Organic Chemistry; McGraw Hill International Book Company.2. Peter Sykes; A Guide To Mechanism in Organic Chemistry; Orient Longman.3. Morrison and Boyd; Organic Chemistry; Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd.4. Samuel Glasstone; Textbook of Physical Chemistry, Mcmillian and Co. Ltd.5. G.M. Barrow; Physical Chemistry; McGraw Hill Publications.6. P.W. Atkins; Physical Chemistry; ELBS Publications.207342: Engineering Mathematics IIILecture Scheme: Exam Scheme:Lecture: 4 hr/week Paper; 100 marks_________________________________________________________________________________1. Ordinary Differential Equations: 8 LectPower Series Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations. Including Theoreticalbasis i.e. Sum, Remainder, Radius of Convergence, Orthogonal sets of Solutions.Legendre & Bessel functions. Strom Louisville Problem.2. Partial differential equations 8 LectSolution by Separation of Variables-One dimensional heat flow equations-Two dimensional heat flow equations- Laplace equation in spherical form3. Vector Calculus: 10 LectDifferential of vector .physical representation of vector derivative .radical and traverse tangentialand Normal component of velocity and acceleration .divergence and curls of vector point functionVector identities line integral irrotational and solenoid fields' .gauss divergence and stoke theoremApplication to problems in fluid mechanics -continuity equations steam lines equation of motionBernoulli's equation4. Fourier transform: 10 LectFinite Fourier and cosine transform .complex Fourier transform infinite sine and cosine transform.Application of Fourier transforms to boundary layer problem such as one and two dimensional heatflow problems5. Laplace Transform: 8 LectLaplace transform of standard function .laplace transform of special function as periodic functions.Unit step function dire delta function .ramp function periodic function .Si(t),Ei(t).error function.Jump Function .laplace inverse transform.6. Application of Laplace transform to chemical Engineering systems: 8 LectDynamic behaviour of first and second order system such as liquid level, thermometer, thermocouple,manometer etc.transfer function of above system.References:1. Pater V. O'niel, "Advanced Engineering mathematics", Thomson Publications.2. Wiley and Darnet, "Advanced Engineering mathematics", McGraw Hill.3. Garewal, "Advanced Engineering mathematics".Wartikar P. N. and Wartikar J. N.; Engineering Mathematics-II; Pune Vidyarthi Griha Prakashan.5. Erwin kreyszig, "Advanced Engineering mathematics", John Wiley & sons.209343: Fluid Flow OperationsTeaching scheme: Exam scheme:Lectures: 3 Hrs / week Paper: 100 MarksPracticals: 2 Hrs / week Practical: 50 Marks1. Fundamentals of fluid Mechanics: 8 Lect.a) Need and scope of studies and important application like heat and mass transfer, microscopic and macroscopic level - continuum hypothesis.b) Fluid - Definition and important properties - density specific wt. Specific gravity vapor pressure and viscosityc) Viscosity - definition, types, Newton's law of viscosity (molecular momentum transport) pressure and temperature dependence Rheological classification2. Fundamental of fluid law: 10 Lect.a) Type of flow - steady / unsteady, uniform / non-uniform, laminar / turbulent, compressible/ incompressible.b) Line to describe flow - path line, streak line , stream line, equi-potential linec) Euler's equation along a stream lined) Pressure and temperature dependence Rheological classificationFluid Static'sa) Fundamental equation of fluid statics, concept of atmospheric, gauge and absolute pressure, pressure measurement by simple and differential manometerb) Concepts of Buoyancy and floatation for floating and submerged bodies (No numericals)3. Fluid Dynamics: 8 Lect.a) Mass and energy balance, control volume, linear momentum, introduction to compressible flowb) Bernoulli's equation and applications; pitot tube, venturimeter, orificemeter, flow through orifice and applications4. Dimensional analysis: 8 Lect.a) Fundamental dimension of quantities, dimensional homogeneity, model studies -geometric and kinematic and dynamic similarities (No numerical problems)b) Problem solving by Buckingham's Pi TheoremLaminar flow through conduitsShell balance based solutions for laminar flow through circular tube (Hagen Poiseuelle equation), on inclined plane, through annular space (concentric pipes)5. Boundary layer theory: 6 Lect.a. Concept of hydrodynamic boundary layer, growth over a flat plate, change in nature of boundary layer, and different thickness of boundary layer, (nominal, displacement, momentum and energy thickness).b. Qualitative discussion of thermal and hydro dynamic boundary layer for heat and mass transferc. Drag on flat plate, coefficient of drag and its variation6. Piping of fluids: 4 Lect.a) Series and parallel pipe systems, Darcy-Weisbach equation, Moody's diagram for obtaining 'f'b) Minor losses and major losses in pipes, Concept of equivalent pipe.c) Introduction to centrifugal pump- Typical sketch, necessary parts, working(Operation) and Selection/ specification (all theory only)Note: Fluid moving machinery in detail to be covered in process equipment design subjectPRACTICAL:1. Determination of viscosity.2. Flow through pipes. Analysis for laminar and turbulent regions.3. Flow through packed bed4. Flow through venturimeter5. Flow through orifice meter6. Flow through pipe fitting7. Verification of Darcy's law8. Characteristics of centrifugal pump9. Pump and blower specification writing in a format routinely Used by process industry10. Trial and error solution to give flow problem on computer11. Verification of stokes lawREFERENCE BOOKS:1. Morton M. Den., "Process fluid mechanics" Prentice Hall 1989.2. R.W.Fox, Allan T. McDonald., "Introduction to fluid mechanics" John Willey and sons 1995.3. Jack B. Evett and Cheng Lin., "Fundamentals of Fluid mechanics" McGraw Hill 1987.4. McCabe and Smith, "Unit operations in Chemical Engineering".5. Bird, Stewart, Lightfoot, "Transport Phenomena", John Wiley and Sons.209344: Chemical Engineering MaterialsTeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Lecture: 3 hr/ week Paper: 100 MarksPractical: 2 hr/week Oral: 50 Marks_______________________________________________________________________1. Introduction to materials and their principle properties, Simple stresses and strains, Concept of stress, strain, shear stress, shear strain, Hooks law, Elastic limit, stress-strain curve for mild steel and elastomeric materials, factor of safety, Poisson's ratio, Strain energy due to axial load and impact. 7 Lect.2. Basic principles in their selection for fabrication and erection of chemical plant.Testing of materials, destructive and nondestructive tests, structure of atom and chemical bonds, crystal structures and their influence on material properties, Deformation and slip processes. 8 Lect.3. Metals and their alloys: Iron - carbon diagram, Ferrous and nonferrous alloys, mild steel, special steels, stainless steels, brasses, brasses, aluminum alloys and titanium alloys, high and low temperature material, insulation, refractories.Methods for fabrication, rolling, bending, central punching, revetting, welding. 9 Lect.4. Corrosion and its control : Different types of corrosion: chemical, biochemical, and electrochemical; Internal and external factors affecting corrosion of chemical equipments, Methods to minimize corrosion, corrosion charts for process equipments. 7 Lect.5. Polymers, natural & synthetic: Selection of polymetric materials for equipment linings, fiber reinforced plastic, application of special polymers like Nylon 66, Teflon in engineering. 7 Lect.6. Ceramic and glasses: Crystalline and non-crystalline ceramics, silicates, refractories, clays, cements, glass vitreous silica, and borosilicate. 6 Lect.References:1. James F. Shacketford, introduction to material science, McMillan publishing compony, Newyork Special:Booksources.2. D.Z. Jestrazebaski, properties of Engg. Materials, 3 rd Ed. Toppers.Co. Ltd.3. J.L. Lee and Evans, Selecting Engineering materials for chemical and process plants, Business Works 1978.4. "Design of machine elements", Spott M.M. Prentice Hall.5. "A text book of machine design" Khurmi R.S. and Gupta J.K.Practicals:1. Microstructure observation and study of metals and alloys. (Minimum five) low carbon steel, medium carbon steel, high carbon Steel, tin, bronze, brass, phosphor bronze.2. Study of properties of polymeric materials; impact test and polymeric Tests.3. Corrosion testing (salt spray test for different samples such as plain carbon steel, chrome plate steel, galvanized steel.)4. Different types of hardness test on metals. i.e. Rockwell hardness test, Brinell hardness test, Shore scleroscope tests.5. Izod and Charpy impact test on mild steel, copper, brass and aluminum.6. Chemical analysis of metals and alloys (Any one element to be analyzed e.g. molybdenum from stainless steel, carbon from steel, copper from brass etc.7. Macrostructure observation: (flow lines observation in forging by macro etching sulphur printing of steel.)8. Study experiments based in, i) Dye penetration ii) Rubber lining, iii) Ultrasonic test, iv) Heat treatments.Minimum 8 experiments to be performed from the above suggested practicals.209345: Process CalculationsTeaching scheme: Exam scheme:Lectures: 4 Hrs / week Paper: 100 Marks1. Basic Chemical Calculations (4 lectures)Introduction to unit processes and operations and their symbols, process flow sheet, Dimensions and Units, Basic Chemical Calculations including mole, equivalent weights, solids, liquids, solutions and their properties, properties of gases.2. Material Balances without Chemical Reactions (9 lectures)Concept, material balance calculations, recycling and bypassing operations, introduction to unsteady state processes.3. Material Balances involving Chemical Reactions (9 lectures)Concept, material balance calculations, electrochemical reactions, recycling and bypassing operations, metallurgical operations.4. Energy Balances (8 lectures)Concept, energy and Thermochemistry, energy balances, heat capacity of pure substances and mixtures, latent heats, enthalpy of pure substances and mixtures, absolute enthalpy, heat of reaction, adiabatic reactions, thermochemistry of mixing processes, dissolution, liquid-liquid mixtures, gas-liquid systems. 5. Stoichiometry and Unit Operations (10 lectures)Distillation, absorption and stripping, extraction and leaching, crystallization, psychrometry, drying, evaporation, introduction to stoichiometry and industrial problems.6. Combustion (5 lectures)Calorific values, coal, liquid fuels, gaseous fuels, air requirement and flue gases, combustion calculations.Reference:1. Stoichiometry by Bhatt & Vora2. Basic Principles & Calculations in Chemical Engineering by Himmelblau.3. Chemical Process Priciples Part I by Hougen & Watson209346: Technical CommunicationTeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Practical: 2 hr/week Term Work: 50 Marks________________________________________________________________________________________________IntroductionLanguage and Communication: Linguistic Communication, Barriers to Communication, Importance of CommunicationNon Verbal Communication : The Body Language, Personal Appearance, Posture, Gestures, facial Expression, Eye Contact, Space DistancingCommunication in Organizations: Pattern of communication, management informationPersonal Communication: Face to Face Communication, Telephonic Communication, Interviews, Instruction, Dictation.Meetings: Purpose, Procedure, Chairmanship, Participation, Physical arrangements.Seminars and Conferences: Type of Discussion Groups, Regulating Speech, Conducting Seminars, Organizing Conferences, Evaluating Oral PresentationsGroup discussion: Group Dynamics, Purposes, OrganizationAudiovisual Aids: Basic Principals and Guidelines, Types of Aids and their use, Graphic AidsFormal Reports: Definition, Preparatory Steps, Types, Structure, Style, Copy EditingTechnical Proposals: Definition, Key Factors, Types, Contents, Format, EvaluationResearch Papers and Articles: Literature Survey, Reference, Writing, Abstract Articles etc.Business Correspondence, Notices, Agenda, Advertising etc.Introduction to internet facilities.Term WorkTerm work and theory are considered to be integral part of the course.Term work shall consist of a journal consisting of regular assignments and presentations completed in the practical class and at home, the total number of assignments should not be less than twelve, generally covering the topics mentioned above. As far as possible, submission should be word processed on a computer using a standard package by the student himself.For the purpose of assignments, extensive use of research papers published in technical journals and articles published in magazines and newspapers may be ma\de so that there is no repetition by the individuals.Oral presentations exercises and group discussions should be conducted batchwise so that there is a closer interaction.Reference BookssKrishna Mohan and Neers Banarge (1996), Developing Communication Skills, Macmillan India Ltd.Day (1995), How to write and publish a scientific paper, Cambridge Lowpriced Edition.Bernice Hurst (1996) , Handbook of communication skill, 2 nd Edition, Kogan pageStrunk W (Jr.) and White E.B., The elements of style, Latest edition, Macmillan Publishing Company, New YorkUniversity of Chicago Press Manual of Style, Publ. University of Chicago Press, (Chicago. Latest Edition).203347: Electrical TechnologyTeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Lecture: 1 hr/weekPractical: 2 hr/week Term Work: 50 Marks3 - PH CircuitsMeasurements of power in 3-pH circuit using 2- wattmeter method for balanced star and delta loads. Measurement of reactive power using 1 - wattmeter method.D. C. MotorPrinciple of working, construction, types, characteristics, starters, methods of speed control, applications.Induction Motorsa) 3 - Phase: Rotating magnetic field, slip, torque slip, characteristics, starters, applications.b) Single Phase: type, starting method, application.Electrical Heating MethodsResistance, Induction and Dielectric heating (Descriptive treatment only)Note: The term work shall consist of a record of the following experiments performed.List of Experiments:Measurement of power in three phase circuit by two wattmeter method.Measurement of reactive power in three phase circuit using one wattmeter method.Brake test on D. C. Shunt motor.Load test on three phase induction motor.Speed variation of D. C. Shunt motor using armature voltage and field current control.Load test on D. C. series motor.Study of single phase induction motor.Study of starter for A) D.C. motor. B) 3 - pH Induction motor.Reference Books:Electrical Technology by Edward Hughes Revised by I. Mckenzie Smith, Pearson Education.Utilization of Electrical Energy by E. O. Tayler, Tata Mcgraw Hill.Second Year Semester - II209348: Chemistry IITeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Theory: 4 hr/week Paper: 100 MarksPractical: 4 hr/week Practical: 50 Marks_______________________________________________________________________________________________Unit 1 Biomolecules 8 LectCarbohydrates - Definition, classification, reactions of carbohydrate oxidation, reeduction, osazone formation, ester formation, isomerization, D.L. configuration, cyclic structure of glucose, fructose fisher, Haworth projection chair form. Brief account and cyclic structure of disaccharides- maltose, sucrose, cellobiose polysaccharide- starch.Aminoacids proteins and enzymes - a- amino acids- fischers projection and relative configuration. Classification of a- amino acids, properties and reactions.Proteins- Formation of peptide linkage, features of peptide linkage, a- helical configuration, b-pleat6ed structure, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins.Enzymes- General information, coenzyme,vitamins, hormones, catalytic site of enzyme, factors affecting enzyme activity. Specificity of enzymes, classification of enzymes.Unit 2 Functional Group Synthesis 8 LectDefinition, common functional group abbreviations, functional group manipulation, synthesis of carboxylic acids, esters, amides, acids chlorides, aldehydes, ketones, imines, alcohols,alkanes, alkenes.Unit 3 8 Lecta) SpectorscopyRevision of principle of U.V. and I.R. spectroscopy. Applications of U.V and I.R. Spectroscopy for identification of simple organic compounds (simple problem).b) Reagents involved in oxidation reductions - Oxidation of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, amines. Reduction of alkanes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, nitro compounds.Unit 4 Atomic structure and Bonding 8 LectReview of atomic structure- electronic configuration, energy levels, orbitals, quantum number. Chemical Bonding- Covalent Bond, VBT, hybridizational shape of molecules with examples (upto C.N.6), Molecular orbital theory, LCAO, M.O. diagrams for diatomic molecules like H 2, CO, O 2, N 2. Multicenter bonding B 2H 6 molecule.Unit 5 Transition elements and their complexes 8 LectTransition elements, study of I st transtyion series w.r.t oxidation states, magnetic behaviour, color, ability to form complexes and catalytic behaviour.Co-ordination compounds-different terms-C.N.,ligands,EAN,-etc.Nature of metal ligand bonding- VBT and CFT- Formation and above properties of tetrahedral square planar and octahedral complexes of I st transition series on the basis of VBT and CFT.Unit 6 Volumetric Analysis 8 LectStandard solutions and various methods of expressing various methods of solutions, equivalent weights in different types of reactions. Primary and secondary standard solutions, their preparations. Classification of volumetric analysis- Acids- base, complexometric, oxidation-reduction, precipitation- with specific examples, theories of indicators used in above all types of titrations, titration curve (acid-base, redox). Numericals on all above.List of practicals:Eight compounds from Group I and nine experiments from Group IIGroup IOrganic qualitative analysis eight compounds- preliminary tests, type, elements, functional group and physical constants- atleast two function from each type.1. Acids- benzoic acid, salicylic acid, phthalic acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid.2. Phenols- a naphthol, b naphthol, resorcinol, O-nitrophenol, P-nitrophenol3. Bases- Aniline, p-toludine, diphenylamine4. Neutral- Benzaldehyde, glucose, acetone, ethylmethyl ketone, ethyl acetate, naphthalene, nitrobenzene, urea, thiourea, m- dinitrobenzene.Group IIAny two from 1,2,31. To determine loss in weight and percent composition of mixture of NaHCO 3 by gravimetric method2. To determine water of cystallization of MgSO 4.XH 2O by gravimetric method.3. To determine water of cystallization of BaCl 2.XH 2O by gravimetric method.Any two from 4,5,64. To standardise KmnO 4 solution by preparing oxalic acid and to estimate ferroius ions.5. To standardise Na 2S 2O 3 solution by preparing K 2Cr 2O 7 and to estimate percentage of Cu from brass6. To standardise KmnO 4 solution by preparing oxalic acid and to estimate managnese ions by Volhard's method.Any two from 7,8,97. Preparation of tetramine Cu(II) sulphate8. Preparation of pottassium trioxalato aluminate9. Preparation of tris ethylene diamine nickel (II) thiosulphate.10. Seperation and identification of metal ions from binary mixture of cations using column chromatography (at least three mixture).Reference Books:Robert V. Hoffman; Organic Chemistry- An Intermediate Text; Oxford University PressMorrison and Boyd; Organic Chemistry; Prentice Hall of India Ltd.John R. Dyer; Application of adsorption spectroscopy of organic compounds, Prentice Hall of India Ltd.Shriver D.F; Inorganic Chemistry; ELDS PublicationsCotton F.A and Wilkinson; Advanced Inorganic Chemistry.Chatwal Gurudeep and M.S.Yadav; Co-ordination Chemistry209349: Heat TransferTeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Theory: 4 hr/week Paper: 100 MarksPractical: 2 hr/week Practical: 50 Marks_______________________________________________________________________________________________1. Introduction: Modes of heat transfer, conduction, convection, and radiation. Significance of dimensional analysis in heat transfer, units of various quantities used in heat transfer dimensional analysis. Importance of dimensional analysis in experimental design and data reduction. 9 Lect,2. Conduction: Fourier's law of heat conduction, thermal conductivity of liquid, gases and solids. Differential equation from shell balance for unsteady and steady state conduction. Introduction to unsteady state condition. Steady state condition in infinitely long slab, infinitely long hollow cylinder and hollow spheres. Thermal resistance in composite slab and cylinder. Concept of thermal resistance, thermal conductance and contact resistance. Heat losses through pipe, thermal insulation and optimum thickness of insulation, properties of insulator. Heat transfer from extended surfaces with uniform cross section, classification of extended surfaces, efficiency of longitudinal fin . 9 Lect,3. Convection: Newton's law of cooling, individual and overall heat transfer coefficient. Natural and forced convection in laminar and turbulent flow. Principal and heat balance equation in laminar flow and empirical equations for turbulent flow through tube, through annulus, over the plate. Concept of thermal boundary layer and its significance. Heat transfer with phase changes: Condensation: Modes and features: Theory and derivation of Nusselt's equation. Condensation on vertical plate and horizontal plate. Heat transfer in boiling liquids: Pool boiling of saturated liquid. Concept of maximum heat flux and critical temperature drop. 9 Lect,4. Radiation: Fundamental facts and definition of terms: Emissivity absorptivity, black body, gray body, opaque body, Stefan Boatmen law, Kirchoffs law, Planks law, Wien's law, Basic equation of heat transfer by radiation, various cases of radiation between two surfaces, the shape factor. 9 Lect,5. Heat exchange equipment: Types of heat exchangers including compat heat exchangers, parallel flow arrangement, fouling factor. LMTD in parallel and counter flow, Effectiveness NTU method. 9 Lect,6. Evaporation: Types of evaporators, performance, capacity and economy. Boiling point elevation, heat transfer coefficients. Material balance calculations. Multiple effect evaporators: Methods of feeding, capacity and economy, effect of liquid head and boiling point elevation. 9 Lect,Reference books1. McCabe W.L., Smith J.C., Harriot P. " Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering" 5 th Ed. McGraw Hill, International ed.1993.2. Kern D.Q., "process Heat Transfer" Tata McGraw Hill ed. 1997.3. Holman J. P. "Heat Tranfer" 7 th ed. McGraw Hill, 1993.4. Coulson J.M.et.al. " Coulson Richardson's Chemical Engineering Vol.1" 5 th ed. Butterworth Heinemann Ltd., 1996.5. Backhurst J.R. and Horker J.H., "Coulsion and Richardson's chemical engineering" Vol. 4" 2 nd ed. Pergamon, 1994.6. Sinnout R.K. "Coulson Richardson's chemical engineering vol.6" pergamonpress, 1993209350 Principles of DesignTeaching scheme Exam scheme-Lecture: 4 hrs. /week Paper: 100 MarksDrawing:2hrs./week Termwork: 50marks ________________________________________________________________________1. Introduction to process equipment design: nature of design, design factors, degrees of freedom, design variables, optimization, nature of process equipments, general design procedure, basic considerations in design, standards, codes, and their significance, equipment classification and their significance, equipment classification and their selection, review due to compression and tension, bending, torsion, temperature effects, design pressure, design temperature, design stress, design loads, review of fabrication techniques, Economics and environmental considerations in design procedure. 9 Lect.2. Shear force and bending moment diagram for simply supported beams, cantilever beams, compound beams. Torsional and bending stresses in machine parts, Torsional shear stresses, bending stress in straight beams, Principal stresses and principal planes, theories of failure (Analytical as well as Mohr circle method).Variable stresses in machine parts: Fatigue, endurance limit, stress concentration, notch sensitivity, and fluctuating stresses. 8 lect.3. Introduction to various types of joints such as: Revetted joint, Welded joint, screw joint, cotter joint, knuckle joint. Pipes and pipe joints, pipe fittings and their applications. 9 Lect.4. Design of machine elements such as, Shaft, keys, couplings. 9 Lect.5. Design of machine elements such as, bearings, belt drives and pulleys. 9 Lect6. Valves: Globe valve, Stop valve, 3-way valve, steam trap, non rising stem, Diaphragm: general construction, working, selection for applicationPumps: general construction, working, application of different pumps, fans, blowers.9 Lect.Term Work1. Assembly drawings of valves.2. Assembly drawings of pumps.3. P & I Draigm.4. Design of shaft, key, coupling, pulley.5. AUTOCAD assignment on A4 sheetsSectional drawing of assemblies of components with the help of AUTOCADComponents: Knuckle joints flange coupling, stuffing box, cotter Joints etc.References:1. "Design of machine elements". Spott M.M. Prentice Hall.2. "A text book of machine design" Khurmi R.S. and Gupta J.K.3. "Design of machine elements" V.B. Bhandari.4. "Introduction to chemical Engineering" Badger W.L. and Banchero J.T., McGraw Hill.5. "Strength of materials" - Beer and Johnson.6. "Process Equipment design", M. V. Joshi, McMillan India.7. "Chemical Engineering Vol. 6", J. M. Coulson, J. F. Richadson and R. K. Sinott, Pergamon Press.209351: Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics-ITeaching Scheme: Exam. Scheme:Lectures: 3 hrs/week Theory: 100 Marks1) Introduction to chemical engineering thermodynamic and first law:The scope of thermodynamics, fundamental and derived quantities, first law of thermodynamics: Formation of 1 st law of thermodynamics, state and path functions, thermodynamic systems, steady state flow system, phase rule, reversible process heat capacity. (7 lectures)2) Volumetric properties of pure fluids: The P.V.T. behavior of pure substance, the viral equation, the ideal gas, the constant volume, constant pressure, adiabatic, polytrophic processes, real gas, applications of Viral equation, critical properties, Vander Wall equation, Benedict- Webb - Rubin equation, Redlich -Kwong equation. (8 lectures)3) Second law of thermodynamics: Carnot cycle, entropy, mathematical statement of 2 nd law, statement of 3 rd law. (8 lectures)4) Thermodynamic properties of Fluids: Maxwell relationships, residual properties, residual properties by equations of state, two-phase systems, Clausius- Clapeyron equation, type of thermodynamic diagram, availability. (8 lectures)5) Refrigeration: Refrigeration cycle (p-v, t-s, h-s, and h-x diagrams) for vapor compression and Adsorption refrigeration systems, Evaluation of COP, duty and load of such cycles, heat pumps, liquefaction. (5 lectures)6) Solution Thermodynamics: Fundamental property relations, chemical potential, criteria for phase equilibrium, partial properties, ideal gas mixtures, fugacity and fugacity coefficients for pure species, for species in solution, generalized correlations, ideal solutions. (8 lectures)Reference Books:1) Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics: J. M. Smith & H. C. Vanness2) Principles of Chemical Equilibrium : Kenneth Denbigh3) Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics : B. F. Dodge4) Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics : T. E. Daubert5) Thermodynamics for Chemists: Glasstone S.6) Thermodynamics for Chemical Engineers: Weber and Meissner7) Chemical and Process Thermodynamics: B. G. Kyle8) Molecular Thermodynamic: Praunitz9) Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics: Narayanan10) Chemical Engineering thermodynamics: Y.V.C. Rao209352: Mechanical OperationsTeaching scheme: Examination scheme:Lectures: 3 Hrs / week Paper: 100 MarksPracticals: 2 Hrs / week Practical: 50 Marks1. Particle Technology and size reduction: 10 Lect.Particle size and shape, Mixtures of particles, Determination of particle size, Standard screen series, screen analysis, Screen effectiveness and capacity, Industrial screening equipments.Crushing efficiency, energy requirements calculations by using different crushing laws, Size reduction equipments: Primary crushers, secondary crushers, Intermediate & fine grinders, Ultra fine grinders, Cutting machines, Open circuit & Closed circuit grinding.2. Handling And Transport of Solids: 8 Lect.Storage of solids, characteristics of Bulk solids. Conveyors: Working principles, Construction, Advantages, Disadvantages and design calculation of Screw conveyors, Belt Conveyors, Chain & Flight conveyors, Bucket elevators, Pneumatic conveyors.3. Mixing and Agitation: 5 Lect.Necessity of mixing & agitation in chemical industries, Types of Impellers & propellers, Different flow patterns in mixing, Calculation of power requirement of mixing equipment, Mixing equipment of pastes & viscous material, Solid - Solid Mixing, Agitator selection.4. Filtration: 6 Lect.Filter media and filter aids, classification of filtration, pressure drop through filter cake, filter medium resistance, specific cake resistance, Continuous Filtration, Washing and dewatering of filter cakes, Centrifugal filtration.5. Fluid - Solid systems: 12 Lect.a. Motion of particles in liquid, drag force, drag coefficientsb. Gravity settling method: Terminal velocity, Stoke's law and Newton's law, free settling, sink and float method, differential settling.c. Sedimentation and thickening: Batch sedimentation, equipments for sedimentation, Kynch theory of sedimentation, calculation of area and depth of continuous thickeners, batch thickeners, and continuous thickeners.d. Fluidization: flow through packed beds, characteristics of fluidized systems, minimum fluidization velocity, types of fluidization, applications of fluidization technique, spouted beds and fixed bed.6. Benefication Operations, Mineral dressing and centrifugal settling operations:4 Lect.Froth flotation, magnetic separator, scrubbers, fiber and fabric filter, and electrostatic precipitators.Mineral jig, cyclone separator, hydro cyclone types and centrifuges, centrifugal clarifier.References:McCabe W. L. &Smith J.C. "Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering". McGraw Hill Publications.Coulson J. M. & Richardson J.F. "Chemical Engineering Vol. 2", Pergamon Press.Badger W. L & Banchero J.T. "Introduction to Chemical Engineering", McGraw Hill Publications.Foust A. S "Principles of Unit Operation".George G. Brown, "Unit operations", CBS publishers and distributors.List of PracticalsMinimum numbers of Experiments to be performed for the term work eight out of the following list.To determine effectiveness of given set of standard screen.To determine energy consumption and crushing law constants for jaw crusher.To determine Critical speed of Ball mill & Average particle size of the product obtained in ball mill OR Average particle size of product obtained in Bhrustone mill.To determine mixing Index of a mixture in Ribbon Blender. OR To determine mixing Index of mixture in Sigma Mixer.To determine filter medium resistance and cake resistance by using Vacuum Leaf filter.To determine filter medium resistance and cake resistance by using Plate & frame Filter Press OR by using centrifuge machine.To determine area of batch thickener by conducting batch sedimentation test.To determine minimum fluidization Velocity & to verify Ergun's Equation.To determine separation efficiency by using froth flotation cell.To determine separation efficiency by using magnetic separator.To determine efficiency of Cyclone separator.Any one Experiment based on the syllabus of subject Mechanical Operation.209353: Workshop PracticeTeaching Scheme: Exam Scheme:Practical: 2 hr/week Term Work: 50 Marks_______________________________________________________________________________________________Topics to be covered at the time of practicals:General purpose Machine Tools.Joining Processes.Pattern making and Foundry.List of Practicals:One job on lathe with taper turning thread cutting, drilling.One job on lathe + milling machine - keyway cutting, gear cutting etc.One job of welding.One job of pattern making and foundry - one simple job of non- ferrous material.A record of the work performed should be presented in the form of a journal based on topics under (A) and the jobs completed under practicals (B).Reference Books:Hajra Choudhary; Workshop Technology; Vol. I & II

Related questions

For a molecule with n chiral centers, there are a possible 2^n isomers that can be formed.

For a molecule with n chiral centers, there are a possible 2^n isomers that can be formed.

There is only 1 center - 1 chiral carbon and hence two optically active isomers.

Optical isomers are found only if there is chiral centre. There is no chiral centre in CH2ClBr due to the presence of two hydrogens on a single carbon.

Chiral molecules have mirror-image isomers

No, there are no chiral centres.

unsymmetrical atom & chiral carbonoptical isomers=2nmesomers=osymmetrical atom & chiral carbon- 1,3,5,...optical isomers=2n-1mesomers=2n/2-1symmetrical atom & chiral carbon- 2,4,6,...optical isomers=2n-1-2(n-1)/2mesomers=2(n-1)/2

aldo pentose contain 3 chairal carbon

3

3

There are 5 chiral carbon atoms in norethynodred.

I think glucose has 4 chiral centres four carbon atoms has four different compound/elements bonded to it.