Standard deviation is a measure of how spread out a set of numbers are from each other. It has a variety of uses in statistics.
standard deviation is the correctiness of reliability of the mean
The standard deviation is the standard deviation! Its calculation requires no assumption.
The standard deviation of the population. the standard deviation of the population.
The standard deviation is 0.
Information is not sufficient to find mean deviation and standard deviation.
Strictly speaking, none. A quartile deviation is a quick and easy method to get a measure of the spread which takes account of only some of the data. The standard deviation is a detailed measure which uses all the data. Also, because the standard deviation uses all the observations it can be unduly influenced by any outliers in the data. On the other hand, because the quartile deviation ignores the smallest 25% and the largest 25% of of the observations, there are no outliers.
The standard deviation in a standard normal distribution is 1.
Standard error of the mean (SEM) and standard deviation of the mean is the same thing. However, standard deviation is not the same as the SEM. To obtain SEM from the standard deviation, divide the standard deviation by the square root of the sample size.
Standard deviation is a measure of the spread of data.
Exactly as in the question: standard deviation!