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Specifically if you increase the diameter of the main lens, or of the main mirror (depending on the type of the telescope), you'll be able to observe dimmer objects (stars, planets, etc.). Also, the telescope's resolving power (angular resolution) improves with a bigger mirror/lens. For example, with a bigger mirror/lens you'll be able to distinguish two stars that are closer together as separate objects.

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Q: What happens when you increase the diameter of a telescope?
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