Because the only whole numbers that divide into 17, without remainder, are 1 and 17 itself.
Four: 1 5 31 and 155.
Divide each of these numbers by 11, and the remainder is 5.
It is a factor.
Only one: 59.
The lowest common factor (the smallest positive whole number which divides into all the numbers without any remainder) of 3, 4, 16 is 1, as it is for any set of numbers. The highest common factor (the largest positive whole number which divides into all the numbers without any remainder) is also 1. The lowest common multiple ((the smallest positive whole number into which divide all the numbers without any remainder, ie the smallest positive whole number which is a multiple of all the numbers) is 48.
Factors are whole numbers that divide exactly into a whole number. These numbers have no remainder. Primes, on the other hand, have exactly two factors which are 1 and itself.
If your improper fraction does not produce a remainder when you divide it, then it's just a whole number. 22/11 = 2
Your question's meaning eludes me. You can divide any number by 5, whether or not it is a remainder, and why would you want to divide a remainder by 5 anyway?
The factors of 12 are 1,2,3,4,6 and 12 because those are the only whole numbers that will divide evenly into 12 with no remainder.
If you take any four consecutive numbers and divide them by 3, the remainders are as follows: 9/3 = 3 10/3 = 3 remainder 1 11/3 = 3 remainder 2 12/3 = 4 Therefore, the highest remainder you can have by dividing a whole number is 2.