Assuming that you want the light switched and the outlet unswitched and the supply voltage is in the switch box you do the following. Run the supply directly from the input of the switch to the outlet. Black goes to the copper colored terminal on outlet, white to silver colored terminal and ground to green screw. The white wires for outlet and light can all be wired together using a wirenut. Do the same for the grounds. Then one side of the switch is connected to the black supply and the other side of the switch to the black wire on the light.
Turn the breaker off sending power to this circuit. Just run power from the outlet up to the light switch box using a 12/2 or 14/2 wire. Now run a 12/2 or 14/2 wire from the light switch box up to the light. In the light switch box tie all the white wires together and push them in the back of the box. Connect all the ground wires together and connect that to the green screw on the light switch. Connect the black wire coming from the outlet to one of the screws on the light switch. Now connect the black wire coming from the light to the other screw on the light switch. Turn your breaker back on and this will control your lite.
You can attach/splice into the power feed to outlet (ways of doing this can vary with how the outlet is wired but make sure that all or part of the outlet isn't controlled by an existing switch). You can then take the hot, neutral and ground to a light fixture or to the first switch, then to the second switch. It is normally easier to do this project by taking power to the light (s) first, with 2 wire drops to the switches, from basement or attic.
Using a light as a power source has its draw backs. The new light and switch will only operate while the, light for a power source, is turned on. What really needs to be done is to find a unswitched source to power the new light through the new switch. Look for near by receptacle for this source.
There may be, but you don't need one for this. The outlet has two or three wires. Black and white or black, white and bare. Extend all the wires to the switch, break the black wire with the switch and continue all three to the light. Simplest wiring there is.
No, if nothing is plugged in pulling current then you are using no electricity by leaving the switch in the on position.
First you need to make sure that you are not overloading the existing circuit. Typically lights and outlets are on separate circuits. Check local electric codes. Basically you have three wires in outlet (black = hot, White = neutral and bare wire is ground). The wire must be rated for the protecting breaker. AWG 14 for 15 A breaker and AWG 12 for 20 A breaker. Extend all three wires to a switch box by using wirenut splices or by extending using the extra screws on outlet if there are any. At the switch box run another wire to light. (Black, White and Bare). Now at the switch connect black wire from light to one side of switch and black wire from outlet to the other side of switch. Connect two white wires together using a wirenut. Connect the bare wire to ground lug on switch and create a pigtail to connect the light bare wire to pigtail. Now connect the light. Black to Black, White to white and bare to bare wires. If light has two black wires and no white, connect one of the black light wires to white wire from switch.
Continue black, white and bare wires from outlet to switch box. Run light black, white and bare wires from light to switch box. Connect wire from light to one attachment on switch and black from outlet onto other switch attachment. Connect white wires together with a wirenut. Connect bare wires together with a wirenut and include a third piece of bare wire to this same wirenut. Connect the other end of this third bare wire to green screw on switch. Make sure all wires are 14 AWG if you have a 15A circuit and 12 AWG if a 20A circuit.
Using 14/2 or 12/2 wire, black, white and bare. Bring the hot/black wire in the light down to the switch on the black wire, through the switch and back to the light on the white wire. Connect the white wire in the power wire to the white wire in the light. Connect the white power wire from the switch to the black wire in the light. Run the black and white wires in the first light to the second light. You should wrap the white power wire from the switch with black electrical tape to cover the white so that the next person realizes it is a power wire.
Most switched outlets have one half that's hot all the time. If that's the case it will be as easy as changeing the outlet. In the center of each side of the outlet there is a small piece of copper connecting the two screws. Look and see if the copper piece is broken on the hot side, if it is then replace the outlet using the constant hot. Cap off the unused wire from the switch. If both sides of the outlet are switched then you can remove the two wires from the switch and tie them together. then either replace the switch and have a dummy or put on a blank cover. You should be all set.
Sure, but the new outlet will be restricted to the amps rating of the fuse for the original outlet. You're basically making a hardwired extension cord.
If you are asking can you put a device, controlled by a switch, using a connection with an outlet, the answer is yes. The caveat is that whatever you add must stay within the amperage rating of the controlling fuse or breaker.