Check the connections to all the receptacles. On a spur, it's possible that one wire slipped off and then that breaks the circuit, not likely on a ring circuit. It is also possible that you have a GFCI (ELCB UK) in the run that might be tripped and that could bring the run down as well. Of course, the breaker might have tripped and the toggle not flipped over; try manually tripping and resetting it.
Usually it is because a breaker has tripped or a fuse has blown.
It takes a finite amount of time to trip a breaker. The short you caused may not have tripped the breaker. If the dryer is no longer working there may be an internal reset that has tripped.
If a certain circuit or area of you home has no electric but the rest does, it's a good indication that a breaker has tripped
Usually there will be lights or equipment in the house that will not operate. If all of the branch circuit breakers or fuses have not tripped or blown the only conclusion left is that the main breaker or fuse has tripped or blown.
The rating of a panel dictates the maximum current of the panel and is protected by a breaker of that rating. If you had 200 amp service to your house and only had a 100 amp panel then you could only draw 100 amps before the breaker tripped.
You might be plugging something in that could have a fault on it, sometimes plugging in a transformer could trip out your fuse, but more often than not your electricity will go due to its breaker tripping at the board due to something being plugged in. Check the cord on the appliance, if no visible damage open plug and and check for loose wiring and check connections at appliance also check for leaking water into sockets and lights! A tripped breaker or a tripped GFCI plug, or maybe you have a blown breaker, or a corroded wire.
It could be a problem with the equipment used to send you power. There could be a problem at the substation. There could also be a line down. It could be that the bill was not paid. You may have to contact the company that provides you the power to get this matter resolved.
Probably a wire shorted out. Probably in a junction box. This should be looked at quickly. If this is the case, the breaker or a fuse in the fuse panel should have tripped. Do not just reset the breaker or fuse as this may cause a fire.
Before you consider the breaker broken make sure that it has not just tripped. Push the handle of the suspected breaker all the way over to the off position. If there was a bit of resistance when turning to the off position before going to the completely off position this is the breaker re setting. Now move the breaker handle to the on position. If you have the ability to check the voltage or the circuit restores voltage to receptacles that were without voltage then the breaker is good. If the breaker has no output voltage at all after following the above instructions, replace the breaker.
The electrical loads in a house are divided. Each 'breaker' or 'fuse' controls the maximum current flow to only certain loads. If there is a 'sub panel', it may control a combination of other loads. If you are losing only some loads, a subpanel or breaker has tripped, and not the main breaker. Or you could have a neutral loose at the neutral bar (white wire) check with a screw driver for tightness, or a loose wire at some junction box. Neve stick a screwdriver, or any other object, into a circuit box until you have insured that the power is off!
It could be a GFCI outlet, and the reset button needs pushed. It could be protected by a GFCI outlet somewhere that needs the reset button pushed. It could have had a wire come loose.If you don't find a GFCI outlet that needs to have the reset button pressed, you should not use the outlet and get someone over right away to fix it. A problem like this could cause a house fire whether the outlet is being used or not.
It's probably either a faulty circuit breaker or a faulty wire somewhere in the house. In either case you should contact a qualified electrician to solve the problem. If it's a wiring problem you could be risking a fire.