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Q: What are always protected by absolute immunity from civil lawsuits while they are performing their official duties?
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What are suits?

Suits are clothing, obviously. But the word can also mean: LAWSUITS - civil legal actions EXECUTIVES - (slang, because that's what they wear) upper level employees of a company. FBI AGENTS or other governmental officials - (slang) likewise for their apparel

If your bankruptcy was dismissed would the creditor ask for the old amount or the same amount that was set by the court?

If the creditor believes they can collect at least a portion of the debt without pursuing litigation they are very likely to negotiate a settlement. Keep in mind once a BK has been dismissed creditors may use whatever means available under the state laws to collect monies owed; this includes lawsuits and in many cases arbitration action.

Is (23)(-45)(27)(7-2) a function?

PRESIDENTIAL IMMUNITY FROM JUDICIAL DIRECTIONBy the decision of the Court in Mississippi v. Johnson,724 in 1867, the President was placed beyond the reach of judicial direction, either affirmative or restraining, in the exercise of his powers, whether constitutional or statutory, political or otherwise, save perhaps for what must be a small class of powers that are purely ministerial.725 An application for an injunction to forbid President Johnson to enforce the Reconstruction Acts, on the ground of their unconstitutionality, was answered by Attorney General Stanberg, who argued, inter alia, the absolute immunity of the President from judicial process.726 The Court refused to permit the filing, using language construable as meaning that the President was not reachable by judicial process but which more fully paraded the horrible consequences were the Court to act. First noting the limited meaning of the term "ministerial," the Court observed that "[v]ery different is the duty of the President in the exercise of the power to see that the laws are faithfully executed, and among these laws the acts named in the bill.... The duty thus imposed on the President is in no just sense ministerial. It is purely executive and political."724 71 U.S. (4 Wall.) 475 (1867).725 The Court declined to express an opinion "whether, in any case, the President of the United States may be required, by the process of this court, to perform a purely ministerial act under a positive law, or may be held amenable, in any case, otherwise than by impeachment for crime." 71 U.S. at 498. See Franklin v. Massachusetts, 505 U.S. 788, 825-28 (1992) (Justice Scalia concurring). In NTEU v. Nixon, 492 F.2d 587 (D.C. Cir. 1974), the court held that a writ of mandamus could issue to compel the President to perform a ministerial act, although it said that if any other officer were available to whom the writ could run it should be applied to him.726 Mississippi v. Johnson, 71 U.S. (4 Wall.) 475, 484-85 (1867) (argument of counsel)."An attempt on the part of the judicial department of the government to enforce the performance of such duties by the President might be justly characterized, in the language of Chief Justice Marshall, as 'an absurd and excessive extravagance."'"It is true that in the instance before us the interposition of the court is not sought to enforce action by the Executive under constitutional legislation, but to restrain such action under legislation alleged to be unconstitutional. But we are unable to perceive that this circumstance takes the case out of the general principles which forbid judicial interference with the exercise of Executive discretion.".... ."The Congress is the legislative department of the government; the President is the executive department. Neither can be restrained in its action by the judicial department; though the acts of both, when performed, are, in proper cases, subject to its cognizance.""The impropriety of such interference will be clearly seen upon consideration of its possible consequences.""Suppose the bill filed and the injunction prayed for allowed. If the President refuse obedience, it is needless to observe that the court is without power to enforce its process. If, on the other hand, the President complies with the order of the court and refuses to execute the acts of Congress, is it not clear that a collision may occur between the executive and legislative departments of the government? May not the House of Representatives impeach the President for such refusal? And in that case could this court interfere, in behalf of the President, thus endangered by compliance with its mandate, and restrain by injunction the Senate of the United States from sitting as a court of impeachment? Would the strange spectacle be offered to the public world of an attempt by this court to arrest proceedings in that court?"727727 71 U.S. at 499, 500-01. One must be aware that the case was decided in the context of congressional predominance following the Civil War. The Court's restraint was pronounced when it denied an effort to file a bill of injunction to enjoin enforcement of the same acts directed to cabinet officers. Georgia v. Stanton, 73 U.S. (6 Wall.) 50 (1867). Before and since, however, the device to obtain review of the President's actions has been to bring suit against the subordinate officer charged with carrying out the President's wishes. Kendall v. United States ex rel. Stokes, 37 U.S. (12 Pet.) 524 (1838); Panama Refining Co. v. Ryan, 293 U.S. 388 (1935); Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579 (1952). Congress has not provided process against the President. In Franklin v. Massachusetts, 505 U.S. 788 (1992), resolving a long-running dispute, the Court held that the President is not subject to the Administrative Procedure Act and his actions, therefore, are not reviewable in suits under the Act. Inasmuch as some agency action, the acts of the Secretary of Commerce in this case, is preliminary to presidential action, the agency action is not "final" for purposes of APA review. Constitutional claims would still be brought, however. See also, following Franklin, Dalton v. Specter, 511 U.S. 462 (1994).Rare has been the opportunity for the Court to elucidate its opinion in Mississippi v. Johnson, and, in the Watergate tapes case,728 it held the President amenable to subpoena to produce evidence for use in a criminal case without dealing, except obliquely, with its prior opinion. The President's counsel had argued the President was immune to judicial process, claiming "that the independence of the Executive Branch within its own sphere . . . insulates a President from a judicial subpoena in an ongoing criminal prosecution, and thereby protects confidential Presidential communications."729 However, the Court held, "neither the doctrine of separation of powers, nor the need for confidentiality of high-level communications, without more, can sustain an absolute, unqualified Presidential privilege of immunity from judicial process under all circumstances."730 The primary constitutional duty of the courts "to do justice in criminal prosecutions" was a critical counterbalance to the claim of presidential immunity, and to accept the President's argument would disturb the separation-of-powers function of achieving "a workable government" as well as "gravely impair the role of the courts under Art. III."731Present throughout the Watergate crisis, and unresolved by it, was the question of the amenability of the President to criminal prosecution prior to conviction upon impeachment.732 It was argued that the impeachment clause necessarily required indictment and trial in a criminal proceeding to follow a successful impeachment and that a President in any event was uniquely immune from indictment, and these arguments were advanced as one ground to deny enforcement of the subpoenas running to the President.733 Assertion of the same argument by Vice President Agnew was controverted by the Government, through the Solicitor General, but, as to the President, it was argued that for a number of constitutional and practical reasons he was not subject to ordinary criminal process.734728 United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974).729 418 U.S. at 706.730 Id.731 418 U.S. at 706-07. The issue was considered more fully by the lower courts. In re Grand Jury Subpoena to Richard M. Nixon, 360 F. Supp. 1, 6-10 (D.D.C. 1973) (Judge Sirica), aff'd sub nom., Nixon v. Sirica, 487 F.2d 700, 708-712 (D.C. Cir. 1973) (en banc) (refusing to find President immune from process). Present throughout was the conflicting assessment of the result of the subpoena of President Jefferson in the Burr trial. United States v. Burr, 25 Fed. Cas. 187 (No. 14,694) (C.C.D.Va. 1807). For the history, see Freund, Foreword: On Presidential Privilege, The Supreme Court, 1973 Term, 88 HARV. L. REV. 13, 23-30 (1974).732 The impeachment clause, Article I, § 3, cl. 7, provides that the party convicted upon impeachment shall nonetheless be liable to criminal proceedings. Morris in the Convention, 2 M. FARRAND, THE RECORDS OF THE FEDERAL CONVENTION OF 1787 500 (rev. ed. 1937), and Hamilton in THE FEDERALIST, Nos. 65, 69 (J. Cooke ed. 1961), 442, 463, asserted that criminal trial would follow a successful impeachment.733 Brief for the Respondent, United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974), 95-122; Nixon v. Sirica, 487 F.2d 700, 756-58 (D.C. Cir. 1973) (en banc) (Judge MacKinnon dissenting). The Court had accepted the President's petition to review the propriety of the grand jury's naming him as an unindicted coconspirator, but it dismissed that petition without reaching the question. United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. at 687 n.2.734 Memorandum for the United States, Application of Spiro T. Agnew, Civil No. 73-965 (D.Md., filed October 5, 1973).Finally, most recently, the Court has definitively resolved one of the intertwined issues of presidential accountability. The President is absolutely immune in actions for civil damages for all acts within the "outer perimeter" of his official duties.735 The Court's close decision was premised on the President's "unique position in the constitutional scheme," that is, it was derived from the Court's inquiry of a "kind of 'public policy' analysis" of the "policies and principles that may be considered implicit in the nature of the President's office in a system structured to achieve effective government under a constitutionally mandated separation of powers."736 While the Constitution expressly afforded Members of Congress immunity in matters arising from "speech or debate," and while it was silent with respect to presidential immunity, the Court nonetheless considered such immunity "a functionally mandated incident of the President's unique office, rooted in the constitutional tradition of the separation of powers and supported by our history."737 Although the Court relied in part upon its previous practice of finding immunity for officers, such as judges, as to whom the Constitution is silent, although a long common-law history exists, and in part upon historical evidence, which it admitted was fragmentary and ambiguous,738 the Court's principal focus was upon the fact that the President was distinguishable from all other executive officials. He is charged with a long list of "supervisory and policy responsibilities of utmost discretion and sensitivity,"739 and diversion of his energies by concerns with private lawsuits would "raise unique risks to the effective functioning of government."740 Moreover, the presidential privilege is rooted in the separation-of-powers doctrine, counseling courts to tread carefully before intruding. Some interests are important enough to require judicial action; "merely private suit[s] for damages based on a President's official acts" do not serve this "broad public interest" necessitating the courts to act.741 Finally, qualified immunity would not adequately protect the President, because judicial inquiry into a functional analysis of his actions would bring with it the evil immunity was to prevent; absolute immunity was required.742735 Nixon v. Fitzgerald, 457 U.S. 731 (1982).736 457 U.S. at 748.737 457 U.S. at 749.738 457 U.S. at 750-52 n.31.739 457 U.S. at 750.740 457 U.S. at 751.741 457 U.S. at 754.742 457 U.S. at 755-57. Justices White, Brennan, Marshall, and Blackmun dissented. The Court reserved decision whether Congress could expressly create a damages action against the President and abrogate the immunity, id. at 748-49 n.27, thus appearing to disclaim that the decision is mandated by the Constitution; Chief Justice Burger disagreed with the implication of this footnote, id. at 763-64 n.7 (concurring opinion), and the dissenters noted their agreement on this point with the Chief Justice. Id. at 770 & n.4.Unofficial ConductIn Clinton v. Jones,743 the Court, in a case of first impression, held that the President did not have qualified immunity from suit for conduct alleged to have taken place prior to his election to the Presidency, which would entitle him to delay of both the trial and discovery. The Court held that its precedents affording the President immunity from suit for his official conduct - primarily on the basis that he should be enabled to perform his duties effectively without fear that a particular decision might give rise to personal liability - were inapplicable in this kind of case. Moreover, the separation-of-powers doctrine did not require a stay of all private actions against the President. Separation of powers is preserved by guarding against the encroachment or aggrandizement of one of the coequal branches of the Government at the expense of another. However, a federal trial court tending to a civil suit in which the President is a party performs only its judicial function, not a function of another branch. No decision by a trial court could curtail the scope of the President's powers. The trial court, the Supreme Court observed, had sufficient powers to accommodate the President's schedule and his workload, so as not to impede the President's performance of his duties. Finally, the Court stated its belief that allowing such suits to proceed would not generate a large volume of politically motivated harassing and frivolous litigation. Congress has the power, the Court advised, if it should think necessary to legislate, to afford the President protection.744743 520 U.S. 681 (1997).744 The Court observed at one point that it doubted that defending the suit would much preoccupy the President, that his time and energy would not be much taken up by it. "If the past is any indicator, it seems unlikely that a deluge of such litigation will ever engulf the Presidency." 520 U.S. at 702.The President's SubordinatesWhile the courts may be unable to compel the President to act or to prevent him from acting, his acts, when performed, are in proper cases subject to judicial review and disallowance. Typically, the subordinates through whom he acts may be sued, in a form of legal fiction, to enjoin the commission of acts which might lead to irreparable damage745 or to compel by writ of mandamus the performance of a duty definitely required by law,746 such suits being usually brought in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.747 In suits under the common law, a subordinate executive officer may be held personally liable in damages for any act done in excess of authority,748 although immunity exists for anything, even malicious wrongdoing, done in the course of his duties.749745 E.g., Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579 (1952) (suit to enjoin Secretary of Commerce to return steel mills seized on President's order); Dames & Moore v. Regan, 453 U.S. 654 (1981) (suit against Secretary of Treasury to nullify presidential orders on Iranian assets). See also Noble v. Union River Logging Railroad, 147 U.S. 165 (1893); Philadelphia Co. v. Stimson, 223 U.S. 605 (1912).746 E.g., Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cr.) 137 (1803) (suit against Secretary of State to compel delivery of commissions of office); Kendall v. United States ex rel. Stokes, 37 U.S. (12 Pet.) 524 (1838) (suit against Postmaster General to compel payment of money owed under act of Congress); Decatur v. Paulding, 39 U.S. (14 Pet.) 497 (1840) (suit to compel Secretary of Navy to pay a pension).747 This was originally on the theory that the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia had inherited, via the common law of Maryland, the jurisdiction of the King's Bench "over inferior jurisdictions and officers." Kendall v. United States ex rel. Stokes, 37 U.S. (12 Pet.) 524, 614, 620-21 (1838). Congress has now authorized federal district courts outside the District of Columbia also to entertain such suits. 76 Stat. 744 (1962), 28 U.S.C. § 1361.748 E.g., Little v. Barreme, 6 U.S. (2 Cr.) 170 (1804); Bates v. Clark, 95 U.S. 204 (1877); United States v. Lee, 106 U.S. 196 (1882); Virginia Coupon Cases, 114 U.S. 269 (1885); Belknap v. Schild, 161 U.S. 10 (1896).749 Spalding v. Vilas, 161 U.S. 483 (1896); Barr v. Mateo, 360 U.S. 564 (1959). See Westfall v. Erwin, 484 U.S. 292 (1988) (action must be discretionary in nature as well as being within the scope of employment, before federal official is entitled to absolute immunity). Following the Westfall decision, Congress enacted the Federal Employees Liability Reform and Tort Compensation Act of 1988 (the Westfall Act), which authorized the Attorney General to certify that an employee was acting within the scope of his office or employment at the time of the incident out of which a suit arose; upon certification, the employee is dismissed from the action, and the United States is substituted, the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) then governing the action, which means that sometimes the action must be dismissed against the Government because the FTCA has not waived sovereign immunity. Cognizant of the temptation set before the Government to immunize both itself and its employee, the Court in Gutierrez de Martinez v. Lamagno, 515 U.S. 417 (1995), held that the Attorney General's certification is subject to judicial review.Different rules prevail when such an official is sued for a "constitutional tort" for wrongs allegedly in violation of our basic charter,750 although the Court has hinted that in some "sensitive" areas officials acting in the "outer perimeter" of their duties may be accorded an absolute immunity from liability.751 Jurisdiction to reach such officers for acts for which they can be held responsible must be under the general "federal question" jurisdictional statute, which, as recently amended, requires no jurisdictional amount.752750 An implied cause of action against officers accused of constitutional violations was recognized in Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 403 U.S. 388 (1971). In Butz v. Economou, 438 U.S. 478 (1978), a Bivens action, the Court distinguished between common-law torts and constitutional torts and denied high federal officials, including cabinet secretaries, absolute immunity, in favor of the qualified immunity previously accorded high state officials under 42 U.S.C. § 1983. In Harlow v. Fitzgerald, 457 U.S. 800 (1982), the Court denied presidential aides derivative absolute presidential immunity, but it modified the rules of qualified immunity, making it more difficult to hold such aides, other federal officials, and indeed state and local officials, liable for constitutional torts. In Mitchell v. Forsyth, 472 U.S. 511 (1985), the Court extended qualified immunity to the Attorney General for authorizing a warrantless wiretap in a ccase involving domestic national security. Although the Court later held such warrantless wiretaps violated the Fourth Amendment, at the time of the Attorney General's authorization this interpretation was not "clearly established," and the Harlow immunity protected officials exercising discretion on such open questions. See also Anderson v. Creighton, 483 U.S. 635 (1987) (in an exceedingly opaque opinion, the Court extended similar qualified immunity to FBI agents who conducted a warrantless search).751 Harlow v. Fitzgerald, 457 U.S. 800, 812 (1982).752 See 28 U.S.C. § 1331. On deleting the jurisdictional amount, see P.L. 94-574, 90 Stat. 2721 (1976), and P.L. 96-486, 94 Stat. 2369 (1980). If such suits are brought in state courts, they can be removed to federal district courts. 28 U.S.C. § 1442(a).

What recourse does a collection agency have on a debt that is twelve years old?

This is the SOL, ( statute of limitations for State Oral Agreements, Written Contracts, Promissory Notes, and Open Accounts.And the years they are still able to collect.Alabama 6 6 6 3 Alaska 6 6 6 6 Arizona 3 6 5 3 Arkansas 3 5 6 3 California 2 4 4 4 Colorado 6 6 6 6 Connecticut 3 6 6 6 Delaware 3 3 6 3 D.C. 3 3 3 3 Florida 4 5 5 4 Georgia 4 6 6 4 Hawaii 6 6 6 6 Idaho 4 5 10 4 Illinois 5 10 6 5 Indiana 6 10 10 6 Iowa 5 10 5 5 Kansas 3 5 5 3 Kentucky 5 15 15 5 Louisiana 10 10 10 3 Maine 6 6 6 6 Maryland 3 3 6 3 Massachusetts 6 6 6 6 Michigan 6 6 6 6 Minnesota 6 6 6 6 Mississippi 3 3 3 3 Missouri 5 10 10 5 Montana 5 8 8 5 Nebraska 4 5 6 4 Nevada 4 6 3 4 New Hampshire 3 3 6 3 New Jersey 6 6 6 6 New Mexico 4 6 6 4 New York 6 6 6 6 North Carolina 3 3 5 3 North Dakota 6 6 6 6 Ohio 6 15 15 ? Oklahoma 3 5 5 3 Oregon 6 6 6 6 Pennsylvania 4 6 4 6 Rhode Island 15 15 10 10 South Carolina 10 10 3 3 South Dakota 6 6 6 6 Tennessee 6 6 6 6 Texas 4 4 4 4 Utah 4 6 6 4 Vermont 6 6 5 6 Virginia 3 5 6 3 Washington 3 6 6 3 West Virginia 5 10 6 5 Wisconsin 6 6 10 6 Wyoming 8 10 10 8 This is some more info... Collections Action - A creditor or third-party collection agency can legally demand or request payment on a debt, via letters and phone calls, forever, as long as the debt remains unpaid. A debtor can order a third-party collector to cease communication, as per the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, which should stop routine demands from that source. (See our Collection Agency FAQ for details.) In practice, the older a debt is, the less vigorous the collection efforts will be, and the more likely the creditor or collector will give up easily. And, unless the debt is secured by some type of property (e.g. a car), they cannot actually force a debtor to pay without a lawsuit. Lawsuits - When a consumer is seriously delinquent (late) on a debt for a significant amount, there is the possibility of the creditor filing a lawsuit. The time limit for doing so is known as the statute of limitations, which is set by individual states. The relevant statute is the one for the state in which the debtor resided at the time of the delinquency. The expiration of the statute of limitations covering a debt will not necessarily prevent a lawsuit, but it will provide an absolute defense, whereby the debtor is simply required to file a response with the court, pointing out this fact, in order to have the suit dismissed. Here is a chart with the statute of limitations for each state and type of debt. Judgements - If a lawsuit has already been filed and won by a creditor, there is another, separate statute of limitations for enforcing (collecting) the judgment. Here is a chart with the judgment enforcement time limits for each state. Federal Taxes - Ten years from the date of the assessment for delinquent amounts, unless a lien has been filed. Tax liens on, for example, real estate, remain until the back taxes have been paid. Student Loans - There is no statute of limitations or other time limit for lawsuits or other enforcement action on defaulted federal student loans. Credit ReportingThe time limits for various types of information to appear on consumer credit reports are set by the federal Fair Credit Reporting Act. Making payments or partial payments on bad debts does not effect the running of the credit reporting time limits, except in the case of tax liens and federal student loans. All other types of items should expire on schedule, based on the original dates, regardless of when or whether they are paid. There was previously a great deal of confusion over the starting point, which could have been interpreted as the date of the last activity on the account. This resulted in the possibility of "re-setting the clock" on an old bad debt by making a payment on it, or by paper-shuffling on the part of collection agencies. The issue was clarified in the 1996 amendments to the FCRA, which set a specific starting date related to the original delinquency date (see FCRA Section 605 (c) (1).) Inquiries - Two years. Late Payments - Seven years from the month in which the late payment was due. If there are multiple late payments in one account item, then they will each expire individually. Charge-Offs - Seven years. The time runs from the date of the delinquency, plus 180 days. If a payment was due on an account on January 1, 2000, but the debtor defaulted, and never caught up to become current again, and the account is eventually declared a charge-off by the creditor, then the seven year reporting time limit starts running on July 1, 2000, with the item scheduled to expire from his/her credit reports on July 1, 2007. Here is our article on charge-offs. Collection Accounts - Seven years. The running of this time limit is the same as with charge-offs. The date of delinquency still refers to the original delinquency with the original creditor, regardless of when the collection agency began working the debt. This includes debts that have been bought by a collection agency. Collection agencies cannot legitimately "re-set the clock." Lawsuits And Judgements - Seven years or until the governing statute of limitations has expired, whichever is longer. Bankruptcy (Chapter 7) - Ten years (from the date of entry of the order for relief or the date of adjudication. Bankruptcy (Chapter 13) - Seven years. Paid Tax Liens - Seven years from the date of payment. Unpaid Tax Liens - Forever (unless paid - see above.) Unpaid Federal Student Loans - Forever (unless paid, after which they can appear for seven years.) The above time limits apply to credit reports which would be available to creditors for most types of credit applications. However, the credit bureaus are legally permitted to disclose older information in the following situations: A credit application involving a principle loan amount of $150,000 or more. An application for a life insurance policy with a payout of $150,000 or more. An application for employment in a position paying $75,000 per year or more. Credit Problems Menu

Related questions

Is The President is entitled to absolute immunity from civil lawsuits seeking money damages when the President acts in his official capacity as President?

yes, I think so. In general, one cannot sue the government for damages/

Does the school systems in Georgia have immunity for lawsuits?

I don't think any school system does. There are lawsuits filed all the time against schools these days.

What type of annuity is protected from lawsuits liens and judgments?


What is governmental immunity?

Immunity is an exemption granted by statute to government or government authorities protecting them from a legal duty, penalty or prosecution connected with official duties. Governmental (or sovereign) immunity, protects government agencies from lawsuits unless the government agrees to be sued.

What does the phrase cloak of legislative immunity refer to?

Generally the "phrase clock of legislative immunity" refers to the security or immunity of civil lawsuits against a legislative body of government, when such matters occur during their official capacity of office.

What are foreign diplomatic officers in the United States immune from?

Foreign diplomatic officers in the United States are immune from prosecution and civil lawsuits. This means that they cannot be arrested or sued for their official actions while serving in their diplomatic capacity. Immunity also extends to their personal property and diplomatic bags, which are protected from search or seizure. However, diplomatic immunity does not grant immunity for serious crimes or offenses committed outside their official duties.

What is the goal of the eleventh amendment?

Protect the sovereignty of individual states (A+)

What is the phobia of lawsuits?

The phobia of lawsuits is called Liticaphobia.

How many lawsuits are against jcpenney?

2 lawsuits

Are the assets in a living trust protected from lawsuits?

Depends on what type of living trust it is. The assets in aÊrevocable living trustÊareÊnotÊprotected from lawsuits, but the ones in an irrevocable living trust are. The only drawback with an irrevocable living trust is that the creator or owner will not be able to add or remove any assets in the trust during the entire validity period.

Can a principal sue a parent for defamation on a website forum?

If the parent has defamed, slandered or libeled the principal, the principal can sue. The media in which the activity occurs does not provide any immunity. Such lawsuits are civil causes of action to prevent just such things from happening.

Why do surgeons wait to perform surgery while patients are still in litigation?

Surgeons are not barred from performing surgeries simply because they have been sued. In fact, a lot of surgeons have several lawsuits going on at any given time. They only need to stop performing surgeries if their license is revoked or if a court orders so.