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Q: What effect does it have on the voltage drop in an electrical cable if the resistance of the cable is decreased?

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Resistance = Voltage ----------- Current So if both the resistance and voltage have halved, the current has doubled

Assuming a constant value of resistance, power is proportional to the square of the voltage applied to that resistance.

If the current is held constant, the voltage will decrease.

Ohm's Law: Current is voltage divided by resistance. Doubling both the voltage and the resistance will not change the current.

If resistance is halved while voltage remains constant, the current will double.

The electrical potential energy increases as the voltage is increased. It further excites the filament in the bulb more than a lessor voltage would. Using good old ohm's law (Voltage = Current x Resistance), a larger voltage applied to a bulb at the same resistance increases the current proportionally and larger currents has the effect to cause higher temps in conductors

The resistance lowers the flow of an electrical current. It also converts electrical energy that flows through it into heat, wasting the electrical energy.

As the resistance in the wire increases due to the longer length the voltage drop across the wire resistance increases. This leaves less voltage across the load. To overcome this voltage drop usually a larger size wire which has less resistance is used. A safe nominal figure for voltage drop is to keep it at 3% of the line voltage.

The battery's terminal voltage will be 1/2 of its open-circuit voltage.

By Ohm's Law, current is voltage divided by resistance, so if you double both the voltage and the resistance, the current would remain the same.

That has no effect on the resistance. The current doubles also.

Yes.

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