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Cross multiply then solve for the variable.
rate of change. :)
rate of change. :)
The rise and the run.
A variable ratio schedule is applied to operant learning. It is the rate in which a reinforcement (reward) for a particular behavior is obtained. A variable ratio schedule is when the reinforcement is sometimes won, sometimes not won.Example:1. Casinos. The reinforcement would be the money won. Sometimes the money is won, but sometimes it isn't.2. Abusive relationships. Sometimes the partner that is doing the abuse is nice, sometimes he/she isn't nice. The "kindness" is the reinforcement.The behavior is the same, but the rate in which the reinforcement is obtained varies.
There are two kinds of reinforcement schedules. The first is continuous reinforcement where desired behavior is reinforced every time. The second schedule is partial reinforcement where a response is reinforced part of the time. Within partial reinforcement, there are four schedules which include fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval and variable- interval.
Fixed-ratio schedule - reinforcement depends on a specific number of correct responses before reinforcement can be obtained. Like rewarding every fourth response. Variable-ratio schedule - reinforcement does not required a fixed or set number of responses before reinforcement can be obtained. Like slot machines in the casinos. Fixed-interval schedule - reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement. Like studying feverishly the day before the test. Variable-interval schedule - reinforcement in which changing amounts of time must elapse before a response will abtain reinforcement.
Answer:Continuous and partial. Partial reinforcement schedule can be: fixed-interval, fixed-ratio, variable-interval, or variable-ratio. See the related link below for more details. Answer:Continuous reinforcement is most effective at the start so the subject learns to associate the behavior with the reward. Afterword this is learned a switch to partial reinforcement can be done - more specifically, a variable-ratio schedule produces the strongest response and slowest extinction.
d. variable ratio schedule
Partial reinforcement is when an individual is rewarded on some, but not all, trials. There are multiple variants of partial reinforcement (fixed interval, variable interval, fixed ratio) but the schedule that is most likely to have the slowest extinction rate is variable ratio, meaning that after a certain number of trials between two values, a reward will be given. A real life example of this is gambling.
In instrumental conditioning, a reinforcement schedule in which a specific number of responses are required before a reinforcer is delivered. For example, FR 5 means that reinforcement arrives after every fifth response.