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It depends on what you mean by what parts are equal. Protons and electrons both have the same magnitude of charge with opposite signs and electrons are much less massive than protons. Protons and neutrons are approximately equal in mass but protons have a charge of +e Coulombs while neutrons have a charge of 0. Atoms can often exist with unequal numbers of protons and electrons. Such atoms are called ions and have a negative charge if they have more electrons than protons and positive charge if they have more protons than electrons.

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Q: What parts of an atom are equal to each other?
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