the corals are very important these is because- 1 they are the rain forest of the ocean2 they provide the habitat for thousands of marine organism3 they observe CO24 they decrease global warming ,ozone depletion5 they prevent from flood , melting of iceberg, etc6 they have great medicinal values7 they provide building materials
DefinitionBUN stands for blood urea nitrogen. Urea nitrogen is what forms when protein breaks down.A test can be done to measure the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood.Alternative NamesBlood urea nitrogenHow the test is performedBlood is typically drawn from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The site is cleaned with germ-killing medicine (antiseptic). The health care provider wraps an elastic band around the upper arm to apply pressure to the area and make the vein swell with blood.Next, the health care provider gently inserts a needle into the vein. The blood collects into an airtight vial or tube attached to the needle. The elastic band is removed from your arm.Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding.In infants or young children, a sharp tool called a lancet may be used to puncture the skin and make it bleed. The blood collects into a small glass tube called a pipette, or onto a slide or test strip. A bandage may be placed over the area if there is any bleeding.How to prepare for the testMany drugs affect BUN levels. Before having this test, make sure the health care provider knows which medications you are taking.Drugs that can increase BUN measurements include:AllopurinolAminoglycosidesAmphotericin BAspirin (high doses)BacitracinCarbamazepineCephalosporinsChloral hydrateCisplatinColistinFurosemideGentamicinGuanethidineIndomethacinMethicillinMethotrexateMethyldopaNeomycinPenicillaminePolymyxin BProbenecidPropranololRifampinSpironolactoneTetracyclinesThiazide diureticsTriamtereneVancomycinDrugs that can decrease BUN measurements include:ChloramphenicolStreptomycinHow the test will feelWhen the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.Why the test is performedThe BUN test is often done to check kidney function.Normal Values7 - 20 mg/dL. Note that normal values may vary among different laboratories.What abnormal results meanHigher-than-normal levels may be due to:Congestive heart failureExcessive protein levels in the gastrointestinal tractGastrointestinal bleedingHypovolemiaHeart attackKidney disease, including glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, and acute tubular necrosisKidney failureShockUrinary tract obstructionLower-than-normal levels may be due to:Liver failureLow protein dietMalnutritionOver-hydrationAdditional conditions under which the test may be done include:Acute nephritic syndromeAlport syndromeAtheroembolic kidney diseaseDementia due to metabolic causesDiabetic nephropathy/sclerosisDigitalis toxicityEpilepsyGeneralized tonic-clonic seizureGoodpasture syndromeHemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS)Hepatokidney syndromeInterstitial nephritisLupus nephritisMalignant hypertension (arteriolar nephrosclerosis)Medullary cystic kidney diseaseMembranoproliferative GN IMembranoproliferative GN IIType 2 diabetesPrerenal azotemiaPrimary amyloidosisSecondary systemic amyloidosisWilms' tumorWhat the risks areVeins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.Other risks are slight but may include:Excessive bleedingFainting or feeling light-headedHematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)Special considerationsFor people with liver disease, the BUN level may be low even if the kidneys are normal.ReferencesMolitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 121.