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Genetics

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Mylene Wintheiser

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โˆ™ 2021-10-06 18:34:42
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Cards in this guide (23)
What is a chromosome

A chromosome is a threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order. It is also known as tightly wound DNA. It is a structure that DNA wraps around.

MORE INFORMATION:

A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions.

Chromosomes vary widely between different organisms. The DNA molecule may be circular or linear, and can be composed of 10,000 to 1,000,000,000 nucleotides in a long chain.

Cells may contain more than one type of chromosome; for example, mitochondria in most eukaryotes and chloroplasts in plants have their own small chromosomes.

Chromosomes are the essential unit for cellular division and must be replicated, divided, and passed successfully to their daughter cells so as to ensure the genetic diversity and survival of their progeny.

Chromosomal recombination plays a vital role in genetic diversity. If these structures are manipulated incorrectly, through processes known as chromosomal instability and translocation, the cell may undergo mitotic catastrophe and die, or it may aberrantly evade apoptosis leading to the progression of cancer.

In practice "chromosome" is a rather loosely defined term. In prokaryotes and viruses, the term genophore is more appropriate when no chromatin is present. However, a large body of work uses the term chromosome regardless of chromatin content. The simplest genophores are found in viruses: these DNA or RNA molecules are short linear or circular genophores that often lack structural proteins.

Chromosomal DNA encodes most or all of an organism's genetic information; some species also contain plasmids or other extrachromosomal genetic elements.
Structure in nucleus made of DNA and protein. Sections of a chromosomes are genes.
structure in a cell's nucleuse thaat contians genetic material
A chromeosome is organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells.
coiled strands of genetic material
coiled strands of genetic material

What is an allele

a form of a gene apex

What happens during telophase

During telophase the cell membrane gets "pinched" and the orgenelles and DNA are split. following telophase is cytokinesis when the cell membrane is sealed off and the mother cell becomes two sister cells.

The final stage of meiosis or mitosis, in which the separated chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the dividing cell and the nuclei of the daughter cells form around the two sets of chromosomes.

This answer contributed by The Scientific Theory Academy of Science (STAOS)

In telophase nuclear membrane is begin to reform at both ends of the cell and spindle fibers disappear. chromosomes uncoil and return to chromatin form in preparation for Interphase. Cytokinesis coincides with this stage of mitosis.

All of this is true but a much easier answer to this question is that telophase is when a new nucleus forms around each copy of dna.

What must happen before meiosis can begin

DNA doubles and produces sister chromatids before meiosis begins.

the chromosomes must replicate

What is a gamete

a sperm or egg cell produced by meiosis

What does polymerase chain reaction enable scientist to make

Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction, scientists can amplify even the smallest amount of DNA, by constant cycles of separation and replication.

How did Mendel obtain his F2 generation

Crossed his F1 generation in self ferilization.

F1 X F1

A species has homologous chromosomes What does this say about the species

A species that has homologous chromosomes is known as a diploid species. Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes that come in identical pairs.Ê

Two brothers inherit different sets of alleles from their parents What effect will this have

They will have different traits.

Why did Mendel study such a large sample of pea plants to determine the probability of inheritance

The more samples you use, the closer your results will match probability.

What happens in meiosis during anaphase 1

The tetrads are pulled apart.

What would most likely stopped mendel from finding a pattern in his results

if seed color and shape were located on the same chromosome

What led scientist accepting mendels ideas

Scientists discoverd chromosmes and DNA

Why does sex linked traits follow different patterns of inheritance than other traits

Males and females have different sex chromosomes.

What best describes the the law of independent assortment

The factors for each trait are separated independently when sex cells form.

A mother has one allele for color blindness and one Allele or normal vision what is the probability that her Gamete Will have the Allele for the color blindness

50%

What mendel trying to determine

how traits are passed to offspring

How is DNA in a prokaryote different from DNA in a eukaryote

DNA prokariyotes is circular. Eukariyotes have linear shape.

How are meiosis and mitosis different

mitosis only has to do with celluar reproduction

meiosis has to do with sex cells reproducing
Mitosis creates new cells that are used for development, repair, asexual reproduction and growth. Meiosis creates cells in order for organisms to reproduce sexually.

A human baby is born with two X chromosomes. What must be true about this baby

Answer this question… A human baby is born with two X chromosomes. What must be true about this baby?

Which best describes probability

the likelihood that something will happen

which best describes the result of mendels work with pea plants

(Apex Learning) He showed how traits are passed between generations.

What best describes probability

Probability is a numeric expression of the "odds" that something will happen.

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