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The number of elementary entities in a mole of the substance.

The elementary entities depends on the particles making up the substance. For example, argon is made of single atoms, so a mole of argon simply contains Avogadro's number of atoms.

Water, on the other hand, is made of molecules, so a mole of water contains Avogadro's number of molecules. Now each water molecule, H2O, contains 3 atoms so a mole of water contains 3xAvogadro's number of atoms.

Sodium chloride, NaCl, is made of sodium and chloride ions, in a ratio of 1:1. So a mole of sodium chloride contains Avogadro's number of sodium ions, and Avogadro's number of chloride ions. A mole of sodium chloride therefore contains 2xAvogadro's number of ions in total.

The number comes from the number of carbon atoms in 12g of carbon-12.

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Q: What is Avogadro's number the number of?
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