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The distance formula for cylindrical coordinates is related to the distance formula for polar coordinates.


where r1 and r2 are the distance to the points 1 and 2 from the origin and TH1 and TH2 are the polar angles.

Dpolar is the distance between the two points in the plane z=0.

Dcyl = SQRT(Dpolar2+(z1-z2)2) = SQRT(r1+r2-r1r2cos(TH1-TH2)+(z1-z2)2)

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Q: What is the distance formula for cylindrical and spherical coordinate system?
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