They stand for a variable. It's like a container that stores a number. Sometimes the numbers are known, sometimes they are not known, and sometimes they are unknown but calculable from known information. For example, if I told you that y=-7 and 5y+7g=0, then y would be a known variable and g would be a calculable value.
Subtracted from for example, 5 diminished by 4 equals 1.
It's a mathematical metaphor.
A mathematical sentence that contains an equals sign would be called an equation.
This is an example of the "commutative" property.
You can get answers from this answer and hopefully it will solve your problem1kb_equals_1024bits_why_is_that_so
Example: Two plus three equals five. 2 + 3 = 5.
Letters in the Alphabet
Numbers are never in the alphabet. In English speaking countries pi equals 3.14. In the Greek alphabet it is the 16th letter.
26 characters in the alphabet. Only true for the modern Roman alphabet.
26 letters of the alphabet
The mathematical statement 31 plus 21 equals 52 as a total.
The mathematical answer to the question what number divided be four equals three is 12.
It is a mathematical equation.
it is a metaphor
When I have needed alphabets in crochet, I have done an online search for "needlepoint alphabet" or "cross stitch alphabet."The reason I like searching in these categories (needlepoint and cross-stitch), is because it's easy to convert to a filet crochet pattern. One stitch equals one block in filet. Some of the sites you find, will even convert something you type, into a pattern also. Although, there aren't that many places that do the conversion for you.
An equation. (Both "equals" and "equation" have the Latin root aequatio.)