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It is an approximate average value for acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the earth. It is affected by altitude, the density of the material near the surface from place to place. And of course, it is totally useless in space, on the moon or Mars.

Q: What restriction exist in using 9.81 N per kg as the proportionality constant for determining weight?

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A rubber band will , approximately, stretch an amount "x" in direct proportion to the force "F" applied to it. So you can write this as an equation, F = KX . To find the proportionality constant "K" , hang a known weight "W" from the rubber band and measure the stretch "L". then divide W/L = K . This is called "calibrating" the rubber band.

The average weight of a seventeen year old varies greatly with gender and height, and those two elements are crucial in determining the average weight.

no it does not remain contant.

Mass is a property of matter and is therefore a constant. Weight however can change, it is the force exerted by that mass in a gravity field. Thus in different gravity fields a constant mass will weigh differently. Weight = Mass * the acceleration of gravity.

Yes, Mass remains constant because the definition of mass does not mean weight. Mass means the amount of room and object takes.

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That assumes gravity doesn't change. To say that two quantities, "a" and "b", are proportional means that you can write an equation: b = ka (for some constant "k"). In the case of weight: weight = mass x gravity In this case, "gravity" is the constant. That means that for different objects, the weight / mass ratio is always the same. Close to Earth's surface, this constant of proportionality - the gravity - is approximately 9.8 newton/kilogram. If you go far away from Earth, perhaps onto the surface of other planets, gravity is NOT constant, and the statement that "mass and weight are proportional" is not true.

The effect of gravity is measured.

the weight will decrease

Yes a constant weight would be important to maintain or gain muscle mass. Constant weight fluctuations are not a good thing, a pound wont matter

I don't think there is a weight restriction, because some ponies may be overweight, but in order to be classified as a pony, a Horse must be 14.2 hands or under when fully matured.

There is no weight restriction on the driver. There is a minimum weight for the car which is 3450 pounds.

Determining the weight of something.

The gravity on Earth is constant.

Weight = Mass x (Local Gravitational Constant)/(Standard Gravitational COnstant)

Weight in a constant gravitational field is also constant, regardless of any surroundings. The weight will be two newtons underwater as well.

when determining volume, moles, weight, and/or temperature

proportionality