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A set is a well defined collection of elements. By well defined, we mean that an element is either in a set or not in a set, but not both. This definitions necessarily seems rather vague, as the notion of a set is taken as an undefined primitive in axiomatic set theory; everything has a beginning, including mathematics.

Q: What is the mening of a set?

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Let set A = { 1, 2, 3 } Set A has 3 elements. The subsets of A are {null}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {1,2},{1,3},{1,2,3} This is true that the null set {} is a subset. But how many elements are in the null set? 0 elements. this is why the null set is not an element of any set, but a subset of any set. ====================================== Using the above example, the null set is not an element of the set {1,2,3}, true. {1} is a subset of the set {1,2,3} but it's not an element of the set {1,2,3}, either. Look at the distinction: 1 is an element of the set {1,2,3} but {1} (the set containing the number 1) is not an element of {1,2,3}. If we are just talking about sets of numbers, then another set will never be an element of the set. Numbers will be elements of the set. Other sets will not be elements of the set. Once we start talking about more abstract sets, like sets of sets, then a set can be an element of a set. Take for example the set consisting of the two sets {null} and {1,2}. The null set is an element of this set.

No, but it is a subset of every set.It is an element of the power set of every set.

The definition of subset is ; Set A is a subset of set B if every member of A is a member of B. The null set is a subset of every set because every member of the null set is a member of every set. This is true because there are no members of the null set, so anything you say about them is vacuously true.

First of all, the null set( denoted by is a subset of every set. But it being a proper set or improper set is debatable. Many mathematicians regard it as an improper set, and rightly have as when we say a set is a subset of another, the super set always contains at least one element. For eg,. Let A be the set, in roster form we take it as: A = {ϕ}, we clearly see n(A)=1 then P(A) = {ϕ,{ϕ}} We observe that at least a set must have 1 element for it to have a proper set, but if we take A = ϕ ( i.e. n(A)=0), then clearly ϕ and A itself are improper sets of A and. Hence the minimum amount of proper sets a set has is nil and improper is 2. But I have seen a few high school text books who regard null set as a proper set, which is totally false, arguable by mathematicians, clearly signifying the lethargy of authors of the book failing to update their error driven books. I assure you, that null set is an improper set of every set.

Yes. the set of rational numbers is a countable set which can be generated from repeatedly taking countable union, countable intersection and countable complement, etc. Therefore, it is a Borel Set.

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