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It is used to run computers. The computer either has a switch on(1) or switch off(0). It is used in most electronics like computers, calculators, and to circulate electriciy.

Q: How is the binary system used today- in at least two different ways?

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz published a paper in 1703, which documented the base-2, or binary number system. There were other earlier uses of base-2 numbers, but Leibniz is given credit for the binary system in use, today. I found several articles, but the Wikipedia article is probably the best one that I came across. See related link.

Hindu-Arabic is a numeral system where actual numbers (one, two, three, etc) are represented by glyphs, or symbols (1, 2, 3, etc). The glyphs we use today are actually West Arabic numerals descended from Hindu-Arabic, which itself descended from Indian Brahmi numerals. Today, we simply call them Arabic numerals. The Hindu-Arabic system uses ten symbols, and is therefore base-10, decimal (it was originally base-9 as there was no symbol for the number zero). The binary system is base-2. As such there are only two glyphs in binary, 0 and 1. Apart from that there really is no difference between binary and decimal. They both work in the same way. Both are positional numbering systems, whereby the right-most digit represents the units (0-9 for decimal, 0-1 for binary). The digit to its immediate is multiplied by the base raised to the power of 1. The next digit to the left is multiplied by the base raised to the power of 2. And so on. Thus the symbols 100 are translated as 1x(10 squared) in decimal (one hundred), or 1x(2 squared) in binary (four). The binary numbering system is predominantly used in computing, because it directly correlates to the way in which a transistor switches between its two voltage states. These states are actually high and low voltage states, however we can interpret these states as being on and off or true and false. But the binary numbering system is by far the easiest way to represent these states. For instance, to store the value 100 (decimal) in a computer's memory, we simply switch the memory's transistors such that a group of eight transistors represents the binary value 01100100.

The Hindu-Arabic system was positional, meaning numerals had different values based on where they were in the number (we use this today: 654 is a different number from 546). It was also decimal, i.e. based on 10, which is also what we normally use today. The Roman system uses combinations of seven letters of the alphabet to indicate values. Although the optional use of subtractive notation can lead to some positional aspects (VI is different from IV), numbers are conventionally written from largest to smallest, i.e. MDCLXVI. The Roman system never had a zero; the Hindu-Arabic system gained a zero in the 10th century because the positional system needed a way to indicate when there was no numeral in that position.

The Romans had a different numbering system that those that are currently used today. Letters represented different numbers so MCI equals one thousand one hundred and one.

Gregorian

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The modern version of binary numbers was discovered by the German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz in 1679. He credits the invention of binary numbers to Fu Xi, who he claims invented the "I Ching" binary system in China 4,000 years ago. Modern historians believe that the "I Ching", which contains the "bagua" binary hexagrams, dates closer to the 9th century BC. Binary numbers were also used elsewhere in the world outside China and Germany. In Polynesia, indigenous groups used a binary decimal system as early as 1450 AD. Pingala in India used a binary system in 200 BC for prosody. A similar system was used in sub-saharan Africa as part of their numerology system (known as "geomancy"). The sort of binary we use today however was put together by a fellow named "Francis Bacon" , and another chap named "Gottfried Leibniz" in the 1600s. The full power of Binary however was finally unlocked by a man named "George Boole" in the 1800s when he invented Boolean algebra which brought all the ideas together.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz published a paper in 1703, which documented the base-2, or binary number system. There were other earlier uses of base-2 numbers, but Leibniz is given credit for the binary system in use, today. I found several articles, but the Wikipedia article is probably the best one that I came across. See related link.

The circuits in a modern computer processor are made up of billions of transistors. A transistor is a tiny switch that is activated by the electronic signals it receives. The digits 1 and 0 used in binary reflect the on and off states of a transistor where 0 can be represented by a low voltage and 1 with a high voltage.

maybe because it is because of the system

The chemistry of francium is practically unknown today.

This compound is not known today.

He did not. The Spanish school system of the 1890s was different from the one in US today.

Education was completely different from today's school system, so a comparison is not possible.

they can't

Hindu-Arabic is a numeral system where actual numbers (one, two, three, etc) are represented by glyphs, or symbols (1, 2, 3, etc). The glyphs we use today are actually West Arabic numerals descended from Hindu-Arabic, which itself descended from Indian Brahmi numerals. Today, we simply call them Arabic numerals. The Hindu-Arabic system uses ten symbols, and is therefore base-10, decimal (it was originally base-9 as there was no symbol for the number zero). The binary system is base-2. As such there are only two glyphs in binary, 0 and 1. Apart from that there really is no difference between binary and decimal. They both work in the same way. Both are positional numbering systems, whereby the right-most digit represents the units (0-9 for decimal, 0-1 for binary). The digit to its immediate is multiplied by the base raised to the power of 1. The next digit to the left is multiplied by the base raised to the power of 2. And so on. Thus the symbols 100 are translated as 1x(10 squared) in decimal (one hundred), or 1x(2 squared) in binary (four). The binary numbering system is predominantly used in computing, because it directly correlates to the way in which a transistor switches between its two voltage states. These states are actually high and low voltage states, however we can interpret these states as being on and off or true and false. But the binary numbering system is by far the easiest way to represent these states. For instance, to store the value 100 (decimal) in a computer's memory, we simply switch the memory's transistors such that a group of eight transistors represents the binary value 01100100.

Almost every operating system that was ever created is still being used at least occasionally by someone.

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) refined the binary number system, which is at the foundation of virtually all digital computers. Although the binary computer did not exist in his time, Leibniz philosophized about a computer based on a binary numerical system. In 1679 he wrote, "Despite its length, the binary system, in other words counting with 0 and 1, is scientifically the most fundamental system, and leads to new discoveries. When numbers are reduced to 0 and 1, a beautiful order prevails everywhere."The origins of the binary system itself can be traced back to ancient civilisation. The Sumerians were using sexagesimal (base 60) over 5,000 years ago, so it stands to reason they were quite familiar with all other bases, including binary. Base 60 was the base of choice back then because of its high divisibility (divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). We still use it today to tell the time (60 seconds, 60 minutes, 24 hours) and is also the reason circles have 360 degrees.Previous AnswerFrank GrayCorrection: Frank Gray (1887-1969) was born 171 years after Leibniz' death. He patented Gray Code, a reflected binary code which "may be built up from the conventional binary code by a sort of reflection process", but he did not come up with the idea of using binary code to store programs. Gray Code is not, in fact, used in binary computers for the purpose of data storage of any kind. It is primarily used to facilitate error correction in digital communications such as digital television.