Q: What kind of graph can be used to illustrate risk and return?

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The higher the risk the more return you could possibly get. The lower risk investments usually do not make you as big of a return.

At the risk of being tautological, the answer is SPHERICAL.

calculate the effective return (mean return minus the risk free rate) divided by the beta. the excel spreadsheet in the related link has an example.

The Sortino Ratio is the actual return minus the target return, all divided by the downside risk. The downside risk is either calculated by the semi standard deviation, or the 2nd order lower partial moment. The related link "Calculate the Sortino Ratio with Excel" provideds an Excel spreadsheet to calculate the Sortino Ratio

Risk reflects the chance that the actual return on an investment may be very different than the expected return. One way to measure risk is to calculate the variance and standard deviation of the distribution of returns.Consider the probability distribution for the returns on stocks A and B provided below.StateProbabilityReturn onStock AReturn onStock B120%5%50%230%10%30%330%15%10%320%20%-10%The expected returns on stocks A and B were calculated on the Expected Return page. The expected return on Stock A was found to be 12.5% and the expected return on Stock B was found to be 20%.Given an asset's expected return, its variance can be calculated using the following equation:whereN = the number of states,pi = the probability of state i,Ri = the return on the stock in state i, andE[R] = the expected return on the stock.The standard deviation is calculated as the positive square root of the variance.Note: E[RA] = 12.5% and E[RB] = 20%Stock AStock B

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Risk free rate of return or risk free return is calculated as the return on government securities of the same maturity.

risk is pre-stage for return...

The higher the risk, the higher the return.

The Efficient Frontier is a graph that shows the portfolio (combination of stocks and bonds) that would give you the highest return at each level of risk. Any point above that is unattainable without a change in risk, any point below is inefficient (that is you could receive greater return for that mix of stocks and bond then you are currently receiving).

From Investopedia.com: The capital market line (CML) is a line used in the capital asset pricing model to illustrate the rates of return for efficient portfolios depending on the risk-free rate of return and the level of risk (standard deviation) for a particular portfolio. The CML is derived by drawing a tangent line from the intercept point on the efficient frontier to the point where the expected return equals the risk-free rate of return. The CML is considered to be superior to the efficient frontier since it takes into account the inclusion of a risk-free asset in the portfolio. The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) demonstrates that the market portfolio is essentially the efficient frontier. This is achieved visually through the security market line (SML). The security market line is a line that graphs the systematic, or market, risk versus return of the whole market at a certain time and shows all risky marketable securities. The SML essentially graphs the results from the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) formula. The x-axis represents the risk (beta), and the y-axis represents the expected return. The market risk premium is determined from the slope of the SML. The security market line is a useful tool in determining whether an asset being considered for a portfolio offers a reasonable expected return for risk. Individual securities are plotted on the SML graph. If the security's risk versus expected return is plotted above the SML, it is undervalued because the investor can expect a greater return for the inherent risk. A security plotted below the SML is overvalued because the investor would be accepting less return for the amount of risk assumed.

The risk return relationship is a business concept referring to the risk involved in exchange for the amount of return gained on an investment. These two factors are directly proportional to each other, meaning the more return sought, the higher the risk that is undertaken.

Expected return= risk free rate + Risk premium = 11 rate of return on stock= Riskfree rate + beta x( expected market return- risk free rate)

additional risk is not taken unless there is an additional compensation or return is expected

Higher risk investments have a higher potential return.

expected market return = risk free + beta*(market return - risk free) So by putting in values: 20.4 = rf+ 1.6(15-rf) expected market return = risk free + beta*(market return - risk free) So by putting in values: 20.4 = rf+ 1.6(15-rf) where rf = risk free 20.4 - 24 = rf - 1.6rf -3.6 = -0.6rf rf = 6

The market risk premium is measured by the market return less risk-free rate. You can calculate the market risk premium as market risk premium is equal to the expected return of the market minus the risk-free rate.

If the required rate of return is 11 the risk free rate is 7 and the market risk premium is 4 If the market risk premium increased to 6 percent what would happen to the stocks required rate of return?