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40 chickens and 30 pigs

This can be solved with 2 equations. Let p = the number of pigs and c = the number of chickens. Pigs and chickens each have 1 head, so p+c=70. Pigs have 4 legs and chickens have 2, so the total number of legs is 4p+2c=200.

Solve this "system of equations" by substitution: The first equation can be written as p=70-c. Substitute the right side for p in the second equation:

4(70 - c) + 2c = 200

280 - 4c + 2c = 200

280 - 2c = 200

-2c = 200 - 280

-2c = -80

c = 40.

Substitute this back into p=70-c: p=70-40=30.

There are 40 chickens and 30 pigs.

Check (in the words of the question): 40 chicken heads and 30 pig heads = 70 heads. 40x2=80 chicken legs, and 30x4=120 pig legs; 80+120=200 legs. Check!

Q: How much pigs and chickens were there if there was 200 legs and 70 heads?

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