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positive predictive value and negative predictive value wil not be affected.

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Q: If sensitivity and specificity remain constant what is the relationship of prevalence to predictive value positive and predictive value negative?
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What is the relationship between prevalence and sensitivity?

as prevalence increases sensitivity and positive predictive value increases, negative predictive value and specificity decreases.

What is the formula of prevalence?

True Cases divided by the total Number in the population.

What is the difference between statistical age standardisation and age-gender standardisation?

Whereas age-standardization adjusts for underlying differences in the age distribution of the combined male-female population, age/sex-standardized rates adjust for differences in the population distribution by both age and sex simultaneously.Age/sex-standardized rates are NOT the same as sex-specific age-adjusted rates.Like age, sex has a powerful influence on disease rates. Males and females have markedly different incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates for certain diseases and males have a shorter life expectancy than females.Therefore, in order to fully account for these differences, researchers may want to adjust for both age and sex when making comparisons for some conditions.The calculation for age/sex adjustment differs from age-standardization in that the individual age-specific rates are stratified by sex and are applied to the standard population stratified by sex.The requirements for the calculation of age/sex standardized rates are:Study population by age and sexStandard population by age and sexNumber of events for males and females in the study populationFormulaei(f) is the number of events for females in age group iei(m) is the number of events for males in age group ipi(f) is the number of females in age group i the study populationpi(m) is the number of males in age group i the study populationPi(f) is the number of females in age group i in the Standard populationPi(m) is the number of males in age group i in the Standard populationFor each age stratum the expected number of events is the sum of the expected number of events for males plus the expected number of events for females in that stratumAge-specific expected events= Ei=[(ei(m) /pi(m) ) *Pi(m) ] + [ (ei(f) /pi(f) ) *Pi(f) ]The age/sex Standardized Rate (per 100 000) is the sum of all expected events divided by the total standard population= [ Sum(Ei)/Sum(Pi)] * 1000

What are the major types of nonprobability sampling designs?

Non-probability SamplingSocial research is often conducted in situations where a researcher cannot select the kinds of probability samples used in large-scale social surveys. For example, say you wanted to study homelessness - there is no list of homeless individuals nor are you likely to create such a list. However, you need to get some kind of a sample of respondents in order to conduct your research. To gather such a sample, you would likely use some form of non-probability sampling.To reiterate, the primary difference between probability methods of sampling and non-probability methods is that in the latter you do not know the likelihood that any element of a population will be selected for study.There are four primary types of non-probability sampling methods:Availability SamplingAvailability sampling is a method of choosing subjects who are available or easy to find. This method is also sometimes referred to as haphazard, accidental, or convenience sampling. The primary advantage of the method is that it is very easy to carry out, relative to other methods. A researcher can merely stand out on his/her favorite street corner or in his/her favorite tavern and hand out surveys. One place this used to show up often is in university courses. Years ago, researchers often would conduct surveys of students in their large lecture courses. For example, all students taking introductory sociology courses would have been given a survey and compelled to fill it out. There are some advantages to this design - it is easy to do, particularly with a captive audience, and in some schools you can attain a large number of interviews through this method.The primary problem with availability sampling is that you can never be certain what population the participants in the study represent. The population is unknown, the method for selecting cases is haphazard, and the cases studied probably don't represent any population you could come up with.However, there are some situations in which this kind of design has advantages - for example, survey designers often want to have some people respond to their survey before it is given out in the "real" research setting as a way of making certain the questions make sense to respondents. For this purpose, availability sampling is not a bad way to get a group to take a survey, though in this case researchers care less about the specific responses given than whether the instrument is confusing or makes people feel bad.Despite the known flaws with this design, it's remarkably common. Ask a provocative question, give telephone number and web site address ("Vote now at, announce results of poll. This method provides some form of statistical data on a current issue, but it is entirely unknown what population the results of such polls represents. At best, a researcher could make some conditional statement about people who are watching CNN at a particular point in time who cared enough about the issue in question to log on or call in.Quota SamplingQuota sampling is designed to overcome the most obvious flaw of availability sampling. Rather than taking just anyone, you set quotas to ensure that the sample you get represents certain characteristics in proportion to their prevalence in the population. Note that for this method, you have to know something about the characteristics of the population ahead of time. Say you want to make sure you have a sample proportional to the population in terms of gender - you have to know what percentage of the population is male and female, then collect sample until yours matches. Marketing studies are particularly fond of this form of research design.The primary problem with this form of sampling is that even when we know that a quota sample is representative of the particular characteristics for which quotas have been set, we have no way of knowing if sample is representative in terms of any other characteristics. If we set quotas for gender and age, we are likely to attain a sample with good representativeness on age and gender, but one that may not be very representative in terms of income and education or other factors.Moreover, because researchers can set quotas for only a small fraction of the characteristics relevant to a study quota sampling is really not much better than availability sampling. To reiterate, you must know the characteristics of the entire population to set quotas; otherwise there's not much point to setting up quotas. Finally, interviewers often introduce bias when allowed to self select respondents, which is usually the case in this form of research. In choosing males 18-25, interviewers are more likely to choose those that are better-dressed, seem more approachable or less threatening. That may be understandable from a practical point of view, but it introduces bias into research findings.Purposive SamplingPurposive sampling is a sampling method in which elements are chosen based on purpose of the study. Purposive sampling may involve studying the entire population of some limited group (sociology faculty at Columbia) or a subset of a population (Columbia faculty who have won Nobel Prizes). As with other non-probability sampling methods, purposive sampling does not produce a sample that is representative of a larger population, but it can be exactly what is needed in some cases - study of organization, community, or some other clearly defined and relatively limited group.Snowball SamplingSnowball sampling is a method in which a researcher identifies one member of some population of interest, speaks to him/her, then asks that person to identify others in the population that the researcher might speak to. This person is then asked to refer the researcher to yet another person, and so on.Snowball sampling is very good for cases where members of a special population are difficult to locate. For example, several studies of Mexican migrants in Los Angeles have used snowball sampling to get respondents.The method also has an interesting application to group membership - if you want to look at pattern of recruitment to a community organization over time, you might begin by interviewing fairly recent recruits, asking them who introduced them to the group. Then interview the people named, asking them who recruited them to the group.The method creates a sample with questionable representativeness. A researcher is not sure who is in the sample. In effect snowball sampling often leads the researcher into a realm he/she knows little about. It can be difficult to determine how a sample compares to a larger population. Also, there's an issue of who respondents refer you to - friends refer to friends, less likely to refer to ones they don't like, fear, etc.

Related questions

What is the relationship between prevalence and sensitivity?

as prevalence increases sensitivity and positive predictive value increases, negative predictive value and specificity decreases.

Does positive predictive value depend on prevalence of the disease?


When will true prevalence be equal to apparent prevalence?

When there are no sampling errors, and the sensitivity as well as the specifity of the test equals 100%.

What are the relationship of between improper excreta and sewage disposal and the prevalence?

ano nga

Why is there a higher HIV prevalence in prisons?

because of have sexual relationship and lack of condom,injecting drug use, used needle,violence

What is a sentence for prevalence?

The prevalence of obesity in the United States has been steadily increasing over the past decade.

The incidence of a disease in a population is called what?

onset /prevalence/

What is another word prevalence?

Another word for prevalence is widespread.

What is the HIV prevalence rate in Zimbabwe?

The HIV prevalence in adults is about 14.3%

What is the formula for prevalence?

Prevalence = Number of existing cases on a specific date ÷ Number of people in the population on this date. My question is as follow: The Prevalence of a recessive gene is 1:40000. What is the formula to calculate the Prevalence of that gene in a community?.Thanks.

What has the author Tirbani P Jagdeo written?

Tirbani P. Jagdeo has written: 'Contraceptive prevalence in Antigua (IPPF/WHR Caribbean contraceptive prevalence surveys)' 'Ippf-Whr Caribbean Contraceptive Prevalence Survey-3' 'Contraceptive prevalence in Grenada' -- subject(s): Birth control, Contraception 'Contraceptive prevalence in Dominica (IPPF/WHR Caribbean contraceptive prevalence surveys)' 'Teenage pregnancy in the Caribbean' -- subject(s): Birth control, Teenage mothers, Teenage pregnancy 'Contraceptive prevalence in St. Kitts-Nevis (IPPF/WHR Caribbean Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys)'

What is diseases prevalence?

Prevalence is the number of cases for a specific disease in a sample of 100 000 people.