Q: What is occurs when some population units are excluded from the process of selecting the sample?

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Sampling error occurs when the sampling protocol does not produce a representative sample. It may be that the sampling technique over represented a certain portion of the population, causing sample bias in the final study population.

A frequency count is a measure of the number of times that an event occurs. To compute relative frequency, one obtains a frequency count for the total population and a frequency count for a subgroup of the population. ... Thus, a relative frequency of 0.50 is equivalent to a percentage of 50%. 0.60 or 60 percent.

Define your event as [A occurs and B does not occur] or as [A occurs and B' occurs] where B' is the complement of B. Equivalently, this is the event that [A and B' both occur].

Control Charts are the graph used to study how the process changes over time whereas histogram is frequency distribution shows how often each different value in a set of data occurs( Histogram is not related to time directly).

There are 12 factorial or 479,001,600 permutations of the letters in the word SOCIOLOGICAL. However, since the letter O occurs three times, the letter I occurs twice, the letter L occurs twice, and the letter C occurs twice, you have to divide that by 8 (O), 2 (I), 2 (L), and 2 (C) giving you 7,484,400 distinctpermutations.

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One process that explains how evolution occurs is natural selection. This process involves certain traits becoming more common in a population over time because they provide a reproductive advantage, leading to gradual changes in the population's characteristics. Additionally, genetic mutations also play a role in evolution by introducing new variations that can be subjected to natural selection.

Evolution occurs at the population level, not at the level of an individual organism or a species. Changes in gene frequencies within a population over time drive the process of evolution.

Redistricting is the process of redrawing electoral district boundaries to reflect changes in population and ensure equal representation. It typically occurs every 10 years after a census to account for population shifts. Redistricting can impact political power, representation, and electoral outcomes.

Adaptation to a changing environment occurs most efficiently through natural selection. This process allows organisms with advantageous traits to survive and reproduce, leading to the propagation of these beneficial traits in the population over time.

glycolysis, occurs in the cytoplasm

photosynphesis

Evolution occurs in population not in an individual.

cancer occurs

The smallest unit in which evolution occurs is a population.