Q: The present value of future cash flows has what relationship to interest rate?

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Present value annuity factor calculates the current value of future cash flows. The present value factor is used to describe only the current cash flows.

The relationship is that present value is the current value of future cash flows discounted at the appropriate discount rate. Future values are the amount a present value investment is worth after one or more periods. We learn everything we can in the present so we have some of the answers for the future and what we don't know we ask the pros about. The difference between the two is contributed by time. The value of something (an asset) may typically increase over a period of time. $100 that you give me today is not the same as $100 you give a year later. There is an interest (or return) that accrues when you pay me $100 a year later. The future value after n years of an amount P where R is the rate of interest (in percentage) is calculated as P(1+R/100)**n : using compound interest. If R =50 (that is 50% rate of return, I know it is high) and n = 2 years, the future value of P is P*1.5*1.5=2.25P where is today's value. The Present value can be calculated from the future value as P = F/( (1+R/100)**n ) It is necessary to measure the value of an amount that is allowed to grow at a given interest over a period. This is how the future value is determined.

IRR is an abbreviation for the economics term internal rate of return. This is the interest rate compared to the expected profit of project or venture. An IRR is weighed against the cost of capital involved in the venture to determine the feasibility of said venture.

An annuity is a series of equal cash flows over time that comes at regular intervals. The cash flows must be either all payments or all receipts, consistently occur either at the beginning or the end of the interval and represent one discount period. Payments made at the beginning of the period indicate an "annuity due" which can include rents and insurance payments. Payments at the end of the period indicate an "ordinary annuity" which include mortgage payments, bond payments, etc.Although loan payments, mortgages and similar financial instruments can be regarded as an annuity, the term is mostly applied from the perspective of being an asset. For example, payments from a lottery or distributions from a lump-sum amount can be considered as an annuity. Annuities can also be an investment used to guarantee a regular income during a retirement.Calculating annuity payments can come from two perspectives: the future value of an annuity or the present value of an annuity.Calculating Ordinary Annuity Payments From Future ValueIf the desired ending amount is known together with the discount rate and number of periods, the payments can be calculated as follows:PMT = FV / (((1 + r)^n - 1) / r)Where:PMT = Payment amount made at the end of the periodFV = The future value of the annuity (how much the balance will be after all payments have been made)r = the discount rate^ = raises the value to the left to an exponential number on the rightn = the number of paymentsIn this calculation, the present value (PV) is assumed to be zero.Calculating Ordinary Annuity Payments From Present ValueIf the sum of money or balance on hand is known together with the discount rate and the number of periods, the amount of payments to reduce the balance to zero can be calculated as follows:PMT = PV / ((1-[1 / (1 + r)^n] )/ r)Where:PMT = Payment amount made at the end of the periodPV = The present value of the annuity (how much is currently on hand)r = the discount rate^ = raises the value to the left to an exponential number on the rightn = the number of paymentsIn this calculation, the future value (FV) is assumed to be zero.Calculating Annuity Due Payments From Future ValueBecause the payment earns interest for one additional period than the ordinary annuity, the future value should be adjusted as follows:FV annuity due = FV ordinary annuity X (1+r)The new value for future value can now be inserted in the original equation to compute the annuity due payments.Calculating Annuity Due Payments From Present ValueTo remove the additional discount period for each payment made on an annuity due, the present value of the annuity must be adjusted as follows:PV annuity due = PV ordinary annuity X (1+r)The new value for future value can now be inserted in the original equation to compute the annuity due payments.Alternate MethodsBecause calculating the payments for ordinary annuities and annuities due, a financial calculator such as the HP 10bII can be used to simplify the process. When many calculations must be performed, the process can be expedited through the use of a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel which is equipped with time value of money functions.See the related links below for an annuity calculator for different types of contracts that compute the balance, distributions, or present value using the amounts you specify.

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Related questions

Present value annuity factor calculates the current value of future cash flows. The present value factor is used to describe only the current cash flows.

Present value annuity factor calculates the current value of future cash flows. The present value factor is used to describe only the current cash flows.

Original cashlow to match principal

When time flow from past to present to future, that is generally known as the passing of time. Time passes.

The relationship is that present value is the current value of future cash flows discounted at the appropriate discount rate. Future values are the amount a present value investment is worth after one or more periods. We learn everything we can in the present so we have some of the answers for the future and what we don't know we ask the pros about. The difference between the two is contributed by time. The value of something (an asset) may typically increase over a period of time. $100 that you give me today is not the same as $100 you give a year later. There is an interest (or return) that accrues when you pay me $100 a year later. The future value after n years of an amount P where R is the rate of interest (in percentage) is calculated as P(1+R/100)**n : using compound interest. If R =50 (that is 50% rate of return, I know it is high) and n = 2 years, the future value of P is P*1.5*1.5=2.25P where is today's value. The Present value can be calculated from the future value as P = F/( (1+R/100)**n ) It is necessary to measure the value of an amount that is allowed to grow at a given interest over a period. This is how the future value is determined.

How is the value of any asset whose value is based on expected future cash flows determined?

intrinsic value

A business is worth the present value of its future cash flows in perpetuity.

The Time Value of Money is a foundational principle in finance that states that money received today is worth more than the same amount received in the future due to its potential earning capacity. In the context of bond valuation, the Time Value of Money is used to calculate the present value of future cash flows generated by the bond, including interest payments and principal repayment. By discounting these future cash flows back to their present value using an appropriate discount rate (which accounts for the time value of money), the current price of the bond can be determined.

1. The interest rate that an eligible depository institution is charged to borrow short-term funds directly from a Federal Reserve Bank. Different types of loans are available from Federal Reserve Banks and each corresponding type of credit has its own discount rate. 2. The interest rate used in discounted cash flow analysis to determine the present value of future cash flows. The discount rate takes into account the time value of money (the idea that money available now is worth more than the same amount of money available in the future because it could be earning interest) and the risk or uncertainty of the anticipated future cash flows (which might be less than expected).

An increase in the discount rate would decrease the value of future cash flows in the Net Present Value (NPV) calculation, making future cash flows worth less in today's terms. This would lower the overall NPV of a project since the present value of future cash inflows is reduced more than the initial investment.

The present value method of analyzing capital investment proposals involves the discounting of future cash flows provided by the investment using the the opportunity cost of capital, or weighted average cost of capital. By discounting the cash flows, you are then able to compare the initial investment with the future cash flows in present value terms. When the sum of future cash flows provide a premium to the initial investment, the net present value becomes greater than zero, and the capital investment should be considered. On the other hand, if the initial investment exceeds the sum of future cash flows, the net present value of the project is less than zero and should be discarded.