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In ordinary arithmetic, the resulting value will be from an infinite set of values but in case modular arithmetic, resulting value will be from a finite set of values.

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e.g. in ordinary arithmetic, the sum of two integers, the result will be an integer in the range {..., -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ...}

for modular arithmetic, the sum of two integers

like (a+b)mod n will be in the range {0, 1, 2, ... n-1}

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Q: What is the difference between modular arithmetic and ordinary arithmetic?

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According to Wikipedia, Carl Friedrich Gauss invented it. Quote Wikipedia,"Modular arithmetic was introduced by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, published in 1801."

Absolutely nothing.

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Yes, because that is how remainder is defined. If the remainder was bigger, you would subtract one (or more) modular values until the remainder became smaller than the modulus.

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They are all modular, structured deals more with processes and object oriented deals with things (objects) and their responsibilities to each other.

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